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Free «Familiarity effects in visual comparison tasks and their implications for studying human intelligence» Essay Sample

This is a summary of the article Familiarity effects in visual comparison tasks and their implications for studying human intelligence by Sheldon Tetewsky. Just as the title suggests, the article reports on a research, carried to establish the influence of previous information concerning cognitive processes that are connected to the aptitude of human beings through assessing its function in defining the novelty of the task. The researcher’s intention was to examine an aspect of Sternberg’s theory. To achieve this objective, the researcher undertook two experiments. In the first trial, Ss completed a task of matching letters engaging similar-dissimilar decision based on four sameness rules namely “physical identity, form, name, and system”. The researcher correlated the performance on the classification role’s name with fluid abilities’ measures when the stimulators were unknown. On the other hand, she did not correlate the same when the stimuli were known. In the second trial, Ss completed three dissimilar kinds of a mental rotation assignment. The researcher correlated the function of the rotation with a trial of fluid capacity when the sources of stimulation were unknown, whereas she did not correlate the revolving function’s slope with a test of fluid capability. 

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Concerning methodology, the study employed a sample of 48 students from Yale University. The stimuli consisted of two letters, i.e., “G (Gimel) and M (Mem)” because the two are illustrated as those using three orthogonal measurements, which differ amid physical and cognitive continuum. The design involved presenting the stimuli in four trial blocks corresponding to the four dissimilar rules of resemblance. The procedure included guiding the participants on the manner to pair the four blocks.

Tetewsky (1992) presented the results using their meanings for comprehension task’s complication nature as well as the manner of interaction between familiarity and processing in the growth of practiced performance. From both trials, it is evident that when participants are unfamiliar with the presented stimuli, the parameters in charge of processing were considerably linked to fluid measures’ ability. On the other hand, when participants were highly known to the tasks’ stimuli, similar processing factors were not related to the ability of fluid measures. Relating to the Sternberg’s theory, the trials showed that the capacity to conduct numerous mental changes using unknown information is a way of handling the demands of novel tasks. Second, this capability can be foretold by means of fluid ability tests. Therefore, reflecting on a situation in which a task engages an individual’s previous experiences, these forms of tasks can be made more potent tools for comprehending the features of processing information of human intelligence.

   

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