There are five traditional educational philosophies namely perennialism, essentialism, behaviorism, progressivism and existentialism (Maya).
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First is the theory of perennialism based on realism and idealism theories. Perennialists believe that students should be taught principles and not facts so that they can develop. This theory advocates for rigorous intellectual curriculum for all students in physical education and sports science. Teachers should engage students in those activities pertinent to all and expect reasoning from them through challenges. This is by engaging them in scientific reasoning and explaining to them the reasoning behind each action.
Essentialism theory holds that students should be subjected to the same actions. Teachers instill moral values to students by offering factual information. In physical education, exercise science and sports, essentialism states that the teacher is the leader and should ensure that every student performs the essential activities. The trainer decides on what is best for students and challenges them by allowing them to compete with each other. Students should learn basic, traditional activities in a thorough and vigorous manner.
Internet encyclopedia of philosophy states that behaviorism focuses on behaviors that are objective. It discounts mental activities by explaining learning through observable behaviors and ignoring mental events. In physical education, exercise and sports science, behaviorism can be used to bring about behavioral change. Response to the environmental stimuli can be changed through conditioning by applying rewards and punishment tactics.
Progressivism theory of education states that learning is best done thorough doing things. It purports that children learn best when they engage in activities that interest them. It emphasizes on real world problem solving and individual development. Trainers centre their training on experiences, needs, abilities and interests of the students. Students are actively involved and made to live in unity with each other to develop social qualities.
Existentialism theory states that instructions and the curriculum should encourage a reflection of one’s choices and identity. One is radically free to act independently and without influence from another person. In physical exercise and sports science, trainers should focus on cognitive and affective dimension of life and students choose which activities to perform. Trainers should allow students find out who and what they are by engaging in activities that relate to their beliefs and experiences.
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