In the field of philosophy there are several theorists who came up with different forms of idealism to explain various concepts of the existence of human beings. The diversity of their arguments towards idealism resulted into the confusion of identifying the best one. Kant is one of the philosophers who made use the teachers and students as an empirical method to learn the concepts of metaphysics as a branch of science. Unlike other sciences, metaphysics has not accomplished permanent and universal facts yet. This makes it harder to differentiate the truth in a given mistake. However, Kant comes up with different questions; he divides them into three parts and concerns the probabilities of metaphysics as a science. The questions assisted him to examine the three complications of the probability of pure natural science, pure mathematics, and metaphysics in general. The obtained outcome permits him to define the restrictions of pure science; it also enables him to answer the questions concerning the likelihood of the metaphysics to be termed as a science. It is through Kant’s understanding of the metaphysics as a science it has resulted to the establishment of the transcendental idealism. Therefore, it is true that Kant’s Transcendental idealism is one of the optimisms that is concerned with people’s mind and their mental operation, in its purposes and restrictions. Kant goes ahead and discovers three different types of subject-predicate judgments that assist him to distinguish the two worlds which include the phenomenal and noumenal world.
The subject-predicate judgments differentiate the reality and ideas. They include; the analytic priori and posteriori, and synthetic priori and posteriori. These judgments make Kant’s theory of understanding develop into the first main division of the First Critique, that he names the Transcendental Doctrine of the Elements. Having it developed Kant came up with modifications between ideas and sensations. Therefore, he categorizes the abilities of sensibility and understanding, which are affected by two forms of intuition and include space and time. Kant considers space and time as a necessity and a priority in his concept of transcendental idealism since they help him to understand the appearance of experience which occurs in different categories. These categories include reality, existence and causality. The categories are not instinctive ideas but are the parts of one experience which forms the phenomena world (Immanuel 36) .Therefore, the phenomena world involve the external things as they seem to be in people’s vision under the forms of intuition of space and time and structured by the diverse forms of understanding. On the other hand, in noumenal world people tend to have neither the information of external objects nor any clues which exceed the restrictions of experience, freedom, God and immortality but tend to have the items that people can see such as trees, desks, and balls.
People tend to acknowledge the phenomenal world since it is the world that one designs from the present sensation in one’s consciousness. This is because the noumenal world comprises of things people seem to rely on hence do not know much about these items. The noumenal world also comprises of two basics which makes one to believe in it so that to make sensible only the moral life. This makes the phenomenal world to be more recognized since people’s knowledge relies on their sensation which seems similar to the construction of the phenomenal world (Immanuel 52). In addition, the phenomenal world believes in concept of space, time and causality which act as an integral aspect in visualizing how the actual world looks in one’s mind. It seems impossible for the noumenal world since it is a real world that comprises of things we believe of their existence but a person cannot acknowledge how real they are since they are not involved one’s mind.
Kant’s, Berkeley’s and the Descartes’ idealism all try to prove the reality of the existence of things, however they argue in different dimensions. Kant is trying to present how synthetic of a priori knowledge is likely to occur in mathematics and science concepts. At the same time Kant sets restrictions what should be recognized. His attitude towards the forms of institution is mostly negative due to the ideas portrayed by Berkley and Descartes in their idealism. The dogmatic idealism of Berkeley rejects the presence of space and objects existing independently and externally of a perceiver (George 26). On the other hand, the problematic idealism of Descartes, states that one can be acquainted only with one’s direct experiences, therefore, one cannot be sure of the existence of the other things outside an individual, since the existing suggestion of the data is undependable. This makes Kant to discard both types of idealism in approval of his own philosophy. Firstly, he declares that one do have information of external objects as phenomenon, since he believes that the experience one has acquired in the world of nature follows the forms of intuition and understanding .However, he disagrees with the fact that one consist of any knowledge of the intelligible jurisdiction of noumenal world. This makes Kant’s transcendental idealism to be termed as a legitimate metaphysics (Immanuel 78).
Transcendental idealism of Kant stands out as a superior idealism compared to the Berkeley’s idealism and Descartes’ idealism. This is evident by the way it proves that the external objects are based on experience in the world of nature. The transcendental idealism also reveals the importance of space and time in understanding argument of the physical objects illustrated in the dogmatic idealism.