The essay begins with the comparison of the new and the old historicists, the new believe that 'history is what had to happen' while the old believe that 'history is what did not have to happen'. However, in terms of the 1970s feminist criticism, even the old historicists have some conformity with the new ones in terms of the essence of the named topic.
According to this essay some theories failed to pay feminist criticism the attention it deserved and this was the reason why the feminist theory was popularized according to the author of this essay. This theory applied the general criticism contempt of the criticism that was directed to feminist criticism and by this it was described as naïve, primitive and parochial.
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The author discusses a number of feminist theories but disagrees with the majority of the theories that have been presented. Some of the issues that have been addressed that relates to the psychological concepts address behavior (aggression, bargaining, altruism, bullying, conformity, communication, cheating etc) and the self (Contingencies of self-worth, self-esteem, self-control). And to these the author disagrees with the theories that have been put forward by other scholars based on the fact that the psychological concept of the self is very evident.
For example, in conclusion, the author is left in a dilemma based on the fact that her feministic individualism currently receives rejection by the majority of the feminist theories. Her self judgment is too challenging that it even challenges the self confidence in her. The subjectivity grounding the feminist practice of the author is a bit different from the other feminists based on the fact that they do not think in the same manner. This is the reason that she settles for the liberal theory to justify her position. This theory states that people do not, cannot and perhaps in ethical terms should not think alike. Paradoxically, if the feature of conventional liberal discussion is spiteful aggressive debate, feminist theory directs it perfectly; this is the reason the author admits the own liberalism looks like an extremely weak communitarianism type but all in all it is the self concept that is in control.
Feminism, Nature, and Discursive Ecologies-By Stacy Alaimo
Right from the opening paragraph, the essay writer gave an example that implied that "woman" and "nature" congregate upon a death-defying topography that conglomerates the very depiction of "woman" that postmodern or poststructuralist feminism has dedicated its efforts to extricate. The author of the essay argues that this is a move to denaturalize the 'woman concept' which disassociates it from the hierarchical system binding woman to dismal nature. As this discussion by the agitated writer progresses, the concept of cognition (Attitudes, assimilation, prejudice, morality) and in particular biology/physiology (amygdala, hormones, neurons, gender, self-esteem) are evident. The linkage of the productivity of the woman to nature is not right according to the author and this goes against the basic rights of the 'woman' in that it lowers her dignity and respect in the role they play in terms of recreation.
According to the book, an elaborative discussion in regard to the psychology of gender; the gender role, gender identity as well as the sexual orientation and these are some of the issues that have been addressed in this essay in addition to the relation of 'nature' and 'woman'. The contradiction based on the determinant of gender between the nature and the nurture one gets as he or she grows up is a major issue that comes up in issues related to gender and this is covered in a number of theories.
Feminist Perspective on the Self First published Mon Jun 28, 1999; substantive revision Wed Jan 27, 2010
The self as a topic has been salient within feminist philosophy for quite some time. Feminism has been charged with the task of defining the self in addressing identity, personhood, and agency. Since time in memorial selfhood in women in regard to law, cultural stereotypes and cultural practices has been subjected to belittlement, subordination and diminishment yet it has never been denied. The cognition has been that women are lesser beings of the masculine gender a paradigm which has been heavily intensified in western culture and philosophy. In response to the existing state of affairs, the works of feminist philosophers has recently taken to; criticizing the existing views of the self; reclaiming women selfhood and re-conceptualizing of the self while incorporating the experience of the woman. These are the three concepts that this entry is based on.
Feminist critiques explore partiality in the two agro American political philosophies the homo economicus and the Kantian ethical philosophy. The conceptions of the two philosophies are exposed as andocentric since the in a way replicate masculine ideas and stereotypes; sexist in the way they demean everything that smacks feminine behavior and masculinity as they assist in perpetration of male dominance.
Reclamation is aimed at changing patriarchal social structures which undermine the autonomy of women while at the same time affirming selfhood in women culturally and legally. Feminist philosophers have therefore been in the fore front in defending social policies that expand the choices available to women and which perceive women as individuals who are capable of self direction. They have therefore argued for egalitarian families, legitimization of women opportunities economically, defense in the reproductive rights of women as well as condemning violence upon women and violence against them in places of work. Gender justice is called for to strike a blow against masculinized self in traditional philosophy
Feminist philosophers emphasize on oversights that will necessitate re-conceptualization of the self in the following two respects. In regard to residual potency that promotes prejudice they urge for people to understand the self as murkily heterogeneous and socially situated. In regard to the ability to resist and discern prejudice that is culturally normative they emphasize that moral subjects should not be reduced to capacities for reason.
Just as in this entry the issue of women selfhood has also been heavily explored, where there is intensive exploration of the cognition of the self and the behavior that meets this cognition which is somewhat very similar to what is discussed in this entry.