Political system is defined as a set of governmental domestic and foreign policies of the country. Political system is normally contrasted to cultural, legal, economic, and social ones. The other meaning of the political system is that it is a set of formal legal associations that comprises of the government and the state. The government refers to administrators, legislators, and arbitrators in the administrative officialdom that happens to control the state at a specific time, and also to some governmental systems that are well-organized. The means of government are deeds and actions enforced by the state policy, and are devised for shaping the state policy. Some of the types of the political system in the world include democracy, dictatorship, communism, and monarchy, among others. In the middle of all the mentioned political systems dictatorship has proven to be more prone to dramatic changes than the rest. Dictatorship refers to a system ruled by the dictator, an individual who acquires full power to rule over the country and decide on its domestic and external policy. This usually happens when a dictator comes to power by force and ends up taking it and usurping it, entirely.
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Fall of Dictatorship in the Countries of the Middle East
Among the above mentioned political systems, dictatorship has proven to be more prone to dramatic changes than others, as has been witnessed in the countries of the Middle East. A good example is Libya. The country has been forced to its knees by dictatorship for nearly 42 years. The regime was overthrown by the national riot, supported by international troops, with the death of the country’s leader Muammar Gaddafi. There were a lot of reasons leading to this uprising.
The first and the foremost, the Libyans were hungry for democracy. They were fed up with their leader and his policy, who had held power in an undemocratic an unjust way for over 40 years. The Libyans desired to be politically free, and enjoy their civil rights and prerogatives too. Ibn Thabit, a hip hop singer, has been among the artists, who have used music and arts to attack Gaddafi’s violation of Libyans civil rights and encourage other citizens of the country to fight for their freedom. In 2008, for example, he posted his first song, which was titled, “Moammar- the coward”.
It was economical inequality to bring Gaddafi on his knee: Gaddafi’s clan used to enjoy a bigger share of the country’s wealth and caused popular dissatisfaction; this made other Libyans desire for fundamental changes. External factors acted as catalysts to protests in Libya. Tunisia uprising and the final overthrow of the country’s ruler, Ben Ali, encouraged Libyans to follow the same route, confident that they will be able to succeed and win a victory.
After the success of the Libyan revolution, the country still has a long way to go. The Militia Group, for example, is threatening the country’s dream for democracy. The group had been formed to overthrow Gaddafi’s Government; with time, however, they came out of control and continued to arrest and torture Gaddafi’s faithful and sympathizers uncontrollably, in jails that were not monitored by the National Transitional Council of Libya. Tribalism has also continued to haunt the National Transitional Council, where the small tribes, like Benghazi-based Awagi and Maghariba, complained of being sidelined in the interim government appointment, which was held on 22nd November 2011. The new Libyan government has also witnessed lots of opposition from protestors, who feel that the National Transitional Council lacks transparency and is not able to give response to the urgent issues in the country, and is incapable of ensuring reforms in Libya.
Hosni Mubarak’s government, in Egypt is another example of the dictatorship in the country situated in the Middle East that faced opposition and protests from its people. A crowded protest march against the leader’s government took place on the 25th of January2011, and on the 11th of February 2011, his government was defeated bringing to an end a dictatorship era in Egypt. There were many reasons for these uprisings. Hosni Mubarak’s government has stuck in corruption practices. He used states money for his personal business investments and interests. This corruption spread to his close political allies, relatives, and friends. This kind of corruption left many Egyptians rotting in poverty and desire to change their lives.
External intervention was among the determinant factors that caused the rise of protests in Egypt. American former president, George W Bush, stated that Egypt needed reforms and freedom. Democracy has been a priority to the United States, and it is no surprise that the country counted for a good deal in the revolution. The demonstration in Egypt, like in many countries of the Middle East, was further inspired by the uprisings in Tunisia that toppled the President, Ben Ali. This opened the eyes of other oppressed peoples and made them fight for their freedom. Another significant agent of the revolution was the social media. The youth held their anti-Mubarak forums on social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter, where groups, like the 6 April Youth Movement, were formed. The political fever in the country went too high. A 30 years rule by Mubarak, who wanted to hand on the power to his son, could not be taken anymore by the people: the 82 year old leader had to leave.
Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) has shown no interest in embracing political change, to correct the sins, committed by Mubarak’s government. This was witnessed when the Council, on September 2011, brought back Mubarak’s infamous emergency law for another year. The Supreme Council has been already drunk with power and hesitant to hand it on to the civilian ruler and administration, by not stating a specific time when it will transfer power. The things are even worse, as the regime is guilty in killing many Egyptians during the Mubarak’s era. Social media have also been gagged, just like the activists were. A blogger, Maikel Nabil, was arrested by the council due to his writings. He was sent to a military court and sentenced to 3 years imprisonment.
Several outcomes have been caused by dictatorship, which have ensured that no changes would take place in the nearest future, and the dictatorship would flourish in the countries for many years. In Egypt, the first reason is that there has never been a peaceful way of protesting for the citizens’ rights and improving of life conditions, without it turning to cause violence and bloodshed. As a rule, military mercenaries were brought in to start shooting the protesters and suppress any riot. As for the Libyan part, often it is claimed by different individuals that the revolution was well-organized and designed earlier by external forces. It is said, for instance, that there was a postponement in the coup d'état plans, it was carried over from December 2010 to March 2011. In any case, the riot was meant to take place; therefore, the question that crops up is whether these uprisings were as impulsive as they seemed to be, or they were well-planned and organized by some external force.
At some point, change in dictatorship is not easily seen; this happens because people are made to view dictatorship as the only path to development and progress; this has shown that it is a good quality of propagation ground for personal discipline and order in respective society. Dictators put into effect individual discipline for the reason that they encourage a state founded on patriarchal and hierarchical worth and principles, all the way through the implementation of the stringent policies, based on individual safety measures and worldwide high opinion on a society’s foundation.
Dictatorship, so far, has proved to be more prone to dramatic change. In conclusion, it is known that even if dictatorships were upturned, the consequential governments would be fragile and unbalanced, making those nations vulnerable to the communist treason. This was continual up to Dwight D. Eisenhower’s administration, which thought that when a dictator was substituted, the socialist gained power. It is, therefore, up to people to fight for their rights so as to get back their freedom from dictatorship and implement a democratic political system, though it is seen to be a hard thing to do. It is obvious that the humankind is in time of awakening, and it gives the impression that it is quite common that, in the era of the superior awareness and ubiquitous media, the public want to get rid of old deals and policies that go against the interests of the populace and the natural history of the nation. A patriotic revolution is one of the steps that are to be taken by the public in order to attain freedom. This was tried by the Egyptians and Libyans; juvenile people who filled the square for several days for the love that they had for their country and adherence to democratic principles. They protested and demanded human rights, more reforms, more employment opportunities, not forgetting respect amongst one another. All those demands were seen to be very modest.
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