IntroductionAll nations develop policies through which they express their position on matters such as income support for people who are financially needy, health care, defense, transportation, foreign relations, immigration, and other matters that affect citizens' lives and the security of the nation. All policies that are developed by a nation touch upon the general welfare of its citizenry, although affecting the day-to-day welfare of its citizens is not always the central policy goal. For example, the goal of a nation's immigration policy is to limit the number of people who are allowed to enter and establish permanent residence in a country. This goal does not express directly any social welfare concern, meaning that it does not have as a purpose to provide income, food or housing, or any other benefit that people need to survive on a daily basis. This is because of the fact that even in the modern world such as today, up to this date, the traces of racial discrimination, dominance and exploitation are still apparent. Since time immemorial, both men and women have experienced how it is to be discriminated by sole reasons of differences in color, political ideologies, religious background, education and even social status and class. The very essence of unfair treatment and discrimination to both and women is the existence of superior and inferior class standing. Imagine a place wherein one is given all the privileges there are to offer while the other is not given much opportunity because of their color difference. It may sound unfair but that is one rude reality that is being faced by the society in all parts of the world. But then, it has been very apparent that in the olden times the discrimination is being experienced only by the African-American whose color is black as compared to the white Americans.
However, in the present days, the issue of discrimination is no longer based on the color of skin but rather on gender. As per the records today, women are being exploited and discriminated in their own places of work especially when they are working overseas or in a foreign land. More often than not, women are facing more discrimination in their workplace as compared to men and the driving force behind this is the difference in gender. The society has thought that men can do better as compared to women especially when the world has envisioned women to stay in their homes and take care of their husbands and children. Women are not for the market place but are created to be in their houses and do household chores. Moreover, women are also being discriminated and exploited in such a way that those who belong to third-world countries are inferior as compared to women from the European countries or any countries belonging in the first-world. Nevertheless, a close reading of immigration policy will reveal humanitarian concerns. Immigration policy is humanitarian in that it provides a means for political dissidents whose lives may be at risk in their homelands to enter and remain in the United States, and it is humanitarian in that it provides rules for people to follow who wish to come to the United States for the sole purpose of attaining a better quality of life. At the same time, immigration policy protects the social welfare of United States citizens by limiting the absolute number of people allowed to immigrate and by limiting the number of work permits granted to people who wish to enter and find employment and thus to compete with and possibly threaten the livelihood of American citizens (Malanga, 76).
Body With the existence of social welfare and policies came the establishment of various social and religious organizations. It must be understood that since social policy is everybody's business. It affects every member of our society. In a democracy, it is equally the responsibility of government officials and ordinary citizens. And we are equally qualified to make judgments about it. Legend has it that in the eleventh century, King Canute, having conquered most of Scandinavia and England, ordered the ocean tide to go back. It came in anyway. The societies stands on the shore of an increasing tide of human misery and disorganization and busy itself frantically in sweeping it back, but for all its efforts, the tide seems to creep in. Ministers are the ultimate policy -makers but government officials can help them immeasurably, not only by advising on policy but also by being aware of the capacity of the policy development process to contribute to the policy objectives of their political masters. Even in the midst of political chaos, there is a part that public servants can play by being conscious of the value of being as rigorous as possible in how they do their work, individually and with others. Hence, this is where social and religious organizations came into being. They are purposively establish in order to ensure that social policies are being made to meet the changing and unending needs of the people in the community. The fact that religious organizations perform the task of communicating the core ideas of social movements contributes to movement success in two important respects. First, religious organizations have inherent legitimacy that may help legitimize the movement. Second, if the social movement is heavily dependent upon religious organizations, it may have a longer life span than most social movements which tend to dissipate as public attention to the issues diminishes and funds to movement organizations become depleted (Garcia, 198). Since religious organizations have a constant source of organizational support (from their congregations), a social movement which is church-based (such as the sanctuary movement) may have a longer life span than other social movements, losing momentum not due to a lack of public support, but due to a loss of interest on the part of religious leaders. Recently the Australian public sector has seen major changes, particularly increased activity in contracting the private sector to take on business previously undertaken within government agencies. Core functions of government have been under serious review. One core function remaining, however, is policy advice and development by supporting and giving aid in terms of financial undertaking. The financial support that will be given by the government to the religious and social organizations will be used in their planning of the means as to how they can advance movements that will support the people in the society. The main role of the government is to advance social policy. Hence, the government is needed in order to fulfill the role of the social and religious organizations. There is no point here in embarking upon a disquisition in semantics. But recent experience, as well as much current discussion, suggests a vital need for greater exactitude in the use of this word "planning." The need is illustrated by our careless and interchangeable use of the words "policy" and "planning." Amusingly enough, the word "policy," more and more frequently employed in various statutory laws as well as elsewhere, has aroused no such passionate division of opinion as planning. There is even an increasing tendency to talk about national policies rather than national plans. To give but a single example, a recent discussion of the agricultural problem in the United States makes almost exclusive use of the expression "policy" in preference to any mention of agricultural planning. Several of the studies of the National Resources Planning Board also spoke of policies rather than of plans (Funnel, 112). The determination of national policy is fundamental to, indeed, it must precede, planning. There can be no such national economic planning of the type Landauer pictures, or that Friedrich Hayek denounces, before our national government in one way or another decides to embark upon a policy of central social direction of productive output. There is a vital reason for drawing a distinction between government "policies" and government "planning." Such a distinction will not only promote a clearer understanding of fundamental public issues but will also advance our knowledge of administrative processes.