Political capital is based on a public figure's favorable image among the populace and among other important actors in or out of the government. Hence, it is an essential opinion of another individual, group, or nation about you, your organization, or your government. Politicians gain political capital by virtue of their position, in conjunction with pursuing popular policies, achieving success with initiatives, and performing favours for other politicians. Political capital expires with the end of a politician's term in office; therefore it must be effectively used for the benefit of the organization, community and the nation. Failed attempts to promote unpopular policies that are not central to a politician's agenda, can cause severe repercussions on politician's misjudgements.
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Social capital refers to the connections within and between social networks like business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, public health and the social sciences. It tends to hold the idea that "social networks have value" - a cure for the modern society. Similar to hammer (physical capital) or a college education (human capital) that increases the productivity at both individual and collective levels, social capital affects and enhances the productivity of individuals and groups or both through social contacts.
The concept of social capital is used to explain myriad ails and wonders in society among these political participation.
It is theorized to facilitate cooperation and therefore allow people to overcome the collective action problem. Social capital is thought to explain variations in the performance of institutions and policies across different settings, and there is evidence of a relationship between trust and economic prosperity (Fukuyama 1995; La Porta et al. 1997).
The focus on the recent decline of political and civic engagement in the United States has received attention from scholars who argue that it has serious implications for areas as diverse as crime and neighbourhood safety, and trust in the government.
When it comes to political participation, there are two streams of argument from the social capitalists. The first one, being the attitudinal aspects of social capital, which is an important factor in explaining why some people take part in politics and others, do not. Activities that relate to in voluntary or non-political associations infuse members with attitudes and values like norms of reciprocity and trust. The second, argument concentrates more on the effects of net- works on recruiting individuals into political participation. Being involved in numerous non-political groups makes it more likely that a person will be asked to get involved in a political cause.
Foley and Edwards believe that "political systems are important determinants of both the character of civil society and of the uses to which whatever social capital exists might be put"
The resurgence of interest in "social capital" as a remedy for the cause of today's social problems draw directly on the assumption that these problems lie in the weakening of civil society.
Thus, a society that relies on generalized reciprocity is more efficient than a distrustful society, for the same reason that money is more efficient than barter.
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