According to David Harvey the relative surplus value can be regarded as a class phenomenon or as the individual sort. As a class phenomenon the relative surplus value contributes to the whole class of capitalists and is the same trendless as class struggle over the labour-power value. If capitalists have to lay out less for the changeable capital the surplus value would accrue even if the working day is fixed. It is also important to mention that it is possible to reduce the value of labour-power allowing cheap imports, but Marx eschews this way. Therefore, the main point of regarding the relative surplus value as a class phenomenon is that when the capitalist produces any use-value or intensifies the production it is efficient for the society. All the changes in production implemented by the individual capitalist are aimed to reduce the value of labour-power. The individual or ephemeral sort of relative surplus value shows the individual capitalist’s advantage. Due to the competition existing on the market the individual capitalists have to implement the same innovative technologies. As it is obvious these two forms of relative surplus value are distinct from each other. The ephemeral innovations decrease the labour-power value as the capitalists tend to increase the productivity and to cheapen the work. In the most cases it can be done by providing new superior technologies. According to Marx machines are “dead labour” consequently, they can not produce value, but can produce extra relative surplus value. In such way the technological innovation take individual capitalists ahead of each other, and provide capitalism production with dynamism. Some other ways in which capitalists can produce relative surplus-value of the individual sort and which are aimed to use all the productive factors as effective as possible are more qualified working force, the improvement of production organization.
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