Corruption is a complex phenomenon as described by the World Bank's 2003 report. Its pedigree loll is cavernous in bureaucratic and political organizations and institutions. The effects associated with this vice vary between countries due different developmental conditions and economic infrastructure. However, corruption cost varies with systemic corruption existing and associated with strong economic performance; past studies have demonstrated detrimental consequences to corrupt practices in the economy according to Wei, 1998. Corruption is holistically defined to incorporate all spheres and lifestyles of mankind from social, political as well as economical. Therefore understanding its operations and how it entrenched in the system greatly assists in its alleviation.
In this case, corruption will be employed to mean: abuse of public office for individual gain (Miller, 1994).
The State of Corruption in the World
It is true that corruption seems to be more present in societies where there is no democratic tradition and institutions, but it could be mistaken to assume there are no corrupt practices in the developed economies. It is simply a question of scale and magnitude in consideration of its effects in the development and growth of economies. Corruption seems to be present almost everywhere; Hall (1999) even speaks of the 'globalization of corruption' and argues persuasively.
For instance, the Guardian (11th May 1990) reported a funds scandal among the Spanish opposition parties in 1990. A few months later, it was revealed that 11 people were arrested on accusations of corruption within the St. Hellen's council in Merseyside, UK. In 1994, a US court decided to press ahead with a bribery case against the Westland Company (Independent 7 October 1994). In early 1995, a huge fraud was suspected at British airways. Later that year an official in the British Ministry of Defense was accused of accepting a $1.5 million bribe in exchange for valuable contracts (Guardian 27 November 1995). The issue of corruption should be done away with in different ways that is acceptable in the entire community, for instance proper communication from the government.
This will be done using a one unifying language that the entire community will understand and abide by it. Secondly, educating and sensitizing the public of the risks associated with corruption better does a great milestone in its reduction. Lastly ensuring that Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) on communication is also followed by making it to the entire population by educating all people of the community on the dangers of corruption. The disable are given special privileges by the Act concerning access to information and equipments to assist them communicate just like the rest should be considered. When the above subjects and interest areas are carefully considered, the repercussion will be a free society with access to all forms of information regardless of age, race, gender and physical or mental incapacity.