McMichael, A. J. (2003). Climate change and human health: risks and responses. Geneva: World Health Organization.
McMichael, an ecologist addresses the general human population on the emerging health concerns that have resulted from climate change. According to the author, climate change has been experienced due to instability of the life support systems triggered by human activities (McMichael, 2003). Environmental issues resulting from green house gases emissions affect human health in the long run.
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Recent documentation by the US Global Change Research Program on the effects of warming in the arctic region on aquatic biodiversity implies future shortages in sea food; nutrition directly impacts of the human health and population (McMichael, 2003). It is true that warming that has resulted from the greenhouse gases is posing a threat to the natural biodiversity, both aquatic and terrestrial thereby affecting human health in the long run.
Doering, C. O. et al. (2002). Effects of climate change and variability on agricultural production systems. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Doering and friends are agronomists and environmentalists who endeavor to explain to the general effects of the green house gases emission more so carbon dioxide on the plant and animal heath, distribution and survival (Doering, 2002). Previous experiences of drastic floods, frost, drought and excessive heat have been as a result of altered climatic patterns and have effected heavily on the natural and managed ecosystems alike. In food production however, the impacts of global climate change have become a concern in managed ecosystems.
In Doering’s (2002) opinion changes in population or income levels would swamp the availability and distribution of food in the future has been proven by previous integrated assessment methodologies and remains the reality until people manage the green house gases emissions that will result in a slower depletion of the ozone layer.
Ibarraran, E. M. & Ruth, M. (2009). Distributional impacts of climate change and disasters: concepts and cases. Cheltenham; Northampton: E. Elgar.
Ruth and Ibarraran are environmentalists who address the governments and policy makers on the social and economic impacts of climate change (2009). They argue that climate change is a global problem, but the extent of its effects depend on the government preparedness and the mitigation measures that are employed before and after the occurrences for example of natural disasters (Ibarraran & Ruth, 2009). They say that impacts are distributed across different latitudes, altitudes and groups of people within the same location for example the recent episodes of drought that have affected Ethiopia but have not ht Southern Sudan yet these countries are in the same longitudinal location. Agreeably as with the writers’ stand, access to information on the present and expected impacts of climate change also differ from one region to another.
Nelson, C. G. (2009). Climate change: impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Nelson (2009) argues from an agronomists point of view that green house gas emissions is playing a major part in raising the earths temperature resulting in melting glaciers, increased precipitation, shifting seasons and extreme weather events. He argues that food security is threatened all around the globe by the accelerating climate change, global population and income growth.
Agriculture is greatly at risk since temperature increases results in crop losses in many parts of the globe and encourages the growth of weeds and promote pest proliferation. This puts the livelihoods of about 2.5 billion people who are dependent on agriculture at stake, and researchers project that conditions will be worse for the already resource poor agrarian communities (Nelson, 2009).
Watson, R. T., Zinyowera, C. M., Moss, H. R., and the intergovernmental panel on climate change working group 2 (1997). The regional impacts of climate change: an assessment of vulnerability. New York: Cambridge university press.
Watson is an environmentalist who believes that the natural ecosystem is important for food production and sustainable economic development. The regional vulnerability focuses on the ecosystems, hydrology and water resources, human settlements, food and fiber production, human health and the climate system (Watson et al., 1997). Variability occurs in vulnerability across regions of similar systems. This can be explained from the present resource use patterns, existing stresses to the ecosystem, environmental conditions and the framework of decision making including government policies, preferences, prices and values. Climatic variability constantly influences ecological systems which are intrinsically dynamic.
I agree that climate change occurs rapidly and faster than the ecosystem can adapt and reestablish itself under continual human use and exploitation, but rates do vary depending on the geographical location and the policy issues at hand.
Mendelsohn, R. & Smith, B. J. (2007). The impact of climate change on regional systems: a comprehensive analysis of California. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub.
Mendelsohn& Smith address the policy makers and the natural resource managers in California from an environmental economist point of view by advising the concerned parties to develop adaptive policies to increase the government’s potential to adapt with climate change.
Previous studies have proven the fact that there is great variability in the ecosystem based on the topography and location in which it occurs. Climate change has impacted on the air quality, natural resources, agriculture, water resources and coastal resources (Mendelssohn. & Smith, 2007). There have been detailed projections of population growth, economic growth, land use and technological improvements as a means of preparedness for any eventualities resulting from climate change.
I agree to the preparedness because it saves on sporadic financial losses that are made when sudden natural disasters that had not been planned for occur.
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