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The groundwater depletion in the USA is one of the serious issues. It could lead to the contamination of the water and rapid reduce in the water level. This paper reveals the main geological principles of the groundwater depletion in Florida. It shows that the situation is critical and need to be solved as soon as possible. It also highlights the measures that were taken in order to prevent the process of depletion.
Groundwater Depletion in Florida
Groundwater is the first free water from the ground of the constantly presented aquifer that is located on the first waterproof layer. It has a free water surface, and usually it does not have continuous roof from the waterproof rocks. Throughout the world, there was a decrease of the groundwater’s level in the last years. This trend is related to the fact that humanity is pumping out of the ground too much water. Florida is one of the biggest containers of the groundwater. It provides the population of the state with 90% of the drinking water. Florida’s aquifer extends through the state and is the main source of water supply. The constant use of the water from the Florida’s aquifer could lead to the significant depletion of its territory. When the drought made its contribution to water reduce, the situation became critical. It was developed a plan in order to restore the Florida Aquifer. However, experts are not completely sure about success of this recovery plan, and only time will show the efficiency of this plan.
The groundwater is a main drinking resource in the United States of America. In the region where lake or river is not accessible, the groundwater is an only source of water for people. It is the significant source of water for agriculture. There are many regions in the country that suffer from the depletion. Florida is one of them. Depletion of the groundwater is a long-term decrease in the level of water due to the constant process of pumping. Depletion is the serious issue that is related to the groundwater use. In Florida the situation is becoming worse and worse. The population rate in the coastal zone is increasing and demanding more water. The use of more fresh water is leading to the depletion of its supplies. As a result the water from the ocean is drawn into the wells. The impact of the ocean creates the contamination of the water. The depletion of the deepest aquifer layers might be permanent where the layers that lay higher compress the lower ones. The result could be that the deepest aquifers will be not completely recharged due to the decrease in the volume of the water storage. Florida is facing this process, because it uses a lot of land for agricultural operations. Those operations require a huge amount of water and heavy irrigation.
In 1990s, more people became struggle from the lack of water due to the opening of new groundwater withdrawals. The residents were scared by this situation. The local authority was tried to convince them that this is due to the drought. However, after the rains they shifted their explanation to the effect of agriculture (Glennon, 2002). It was hard to establish the original reason of the depletion, but with time it became clear. Moreover, the damage that was significant. Anyway, the authority made a mistake when they put the blame on the drought and protected the negative effect of the groundwater pumping.
In the Florida case, there was no other choice as to develop a plan for recovery. There were taken measures to restrict the use of water for loans and limit the installation of new ones during the drought months. The next step that should be taken by the authority is to provide the alternative source of the drinking water for the population. It will allow reducing the consumption of the groundwater and will give the option for the recharge. The human activity in Florida has led to the saltwater intrusion that resulted in the depletion of the area with lakes. The final measure to prevent further depletion was the construction of the desalination plant in order to treat seawater and use it for municipal supply.