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Free «An Epidemiological Approach to Tuberculosis» Essay Sample


Tuberculosis is a contagious bacterial ailment caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the disease most frequently affects the lungs. Tuberculosis is transmitted from one individual to another individual through droplets from the lungs and throat of an infected person with the active infectious respiratory disease. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in healthy person often causes no symptoms, for the reason that the person's defense system acts to “wall off” the bacteria. The common symptoms and signs of active Tuberculosis of the lung are chest pains, coughing, sometimes with blood or sputum, weakness, fever, weight loss and night sweats. With a 6 moth dose of antibiotics Tuberculosis is treatable.

Prevalence and incidence rates of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is recognized to be the main cause of death and disability globally. In addition it estimated that 1/3 of the world’s population has acquired the diseases and that the disease is known to be the main cause of about three million deaths yearly. The World Health Organization declared Tuberculosis to be a worldwide emergency, in nineteen ninety three, the foremost disease so top secret in the World Health Organization history (Raviglione 1995).



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The effects  of Tuberculosis has increased with the spread of HIV infection/AIDS In developing countries, and the tuberculosis has reached epidemic magnitude, however in  developed  countries, homelessness,  high rates of decreased funding for public health intervention  control programs, alterations in immigration patterns,  and regular overseas travel have resulted in  reversal in earlier well-reputable declines in Tuberculosis notification rates. In relation to the World Health Organization data released in nineteen ninety seven, the reported incidence regional rates of Tuberculosis in nineteen ninety five ranged from thirty three per hundred thousand, in the United States of Americas.

HIV infection deteriorates the body defense system and as a result makes active Tuberculosis illness more prone in persons infected with the Tuberculosis bacillus. As an impact of high spread of HIV, an approximated one point five million global cases of active Tuberculosis are anticipated to occur yearly in individuals who are suffering from   HIV/AIDS by the last part of the century. However, Tuberculosis is recognized worldwide to be leading cause of death among persons who are infected with HIV (Kritski 2001).

Impact of TB on Society

Tuberculosis is a social illness that is tremendously sensitive to the standard of living of a given society. The housing conditions and degree of crowding are therefore significant causal factors that promote the spreading of the disease. Frequently, stable contact is needed in sequence that Tuberculosis disease to be transmitted. Furthermore, Tuberculosis is also perceptive to nutritional status of a given community. Individuals with excellent nutritional status are far-off more resistant to the tuberculosis than the individual suffering from malnutrition disorders. Protein deficit is chiefly dangerous, particularly a deficit in animal proteins. High rates of crowding and nutritional deficiency leads to higher TB incidence in societies where tuberculosis is endemic. On the other hand, a decline in the tuberculosis incidence presupposes healthier standards of housing and nutrition, for the period before new chemotherapy, and to a definite degree even later.

Tuberculosis was a major is socio-economic problem in many societies, but now the disease’s the disease is treatable. Tuberculosis is a disease that has an impact on both that attitude and the economy of a given society due to its nature and extent to human suffering (Borgdorft 2003).

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Natural Life History Tuberculosis

Throughout the history tuberculosis has been a major killer disease for many years. For the period of the age of Hippocrates and a great deal later also, tuberculosis was recognized as “phthisis”, a Greek word meaning “wasting away”. Tuberculosis in the past years was mainly likely an unnoticed and sporadic disease in humans’ beings. Due to increase in population densities the Tuberculosis disease became an Epidemic.

In the Paleolithic age, before the humans beings started practicing Agriculture, when they still gatherers and hunters, it is possible that Tuberculosis diseases occurred merely sporadically. This is for the reason that the Paleolithic human being lived a simple, the life of an itinerant which did not involve settling down in rural communities, nor did it entail crowding in large groups. This was possible explanation why Tuberculosis or any other contagious illness did not crop up as epidemics in those periods.

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When the early man started practicing primitive agricultural developments for instance, rearing animals and growing crops, that allowed him to establish permanent settlement areas. In permanent settlements, and in addition with the domestication of dairy animals, it is guesstimated that around this period, the historical trend of tuberculosis illness took a twist and Tuberculosis made its occurrence experienced more evidently amongst humans. However, the infectious disease still did not reach people as an epidemic.

The foremost endemic presence of Tuberculosis most possible occurred between animals. The infecting organism that created first the human infections was Mycobacterium bovis.

In the historical background of Tuberculoses illness Historians consider that, Tuberculosis presence was first felt in Europe and was then spread throughout the Europeans to their colonial territories. Afterward, it  presence was felt in the United States of America, Africa and other regions of South-east Asia, through explorers and early settlers( Cantuel 1992).

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Primary Prevention

Primary control measure to prevent tuberculosis illness promotes health and protect against disclosure to risk features that may result to health problems. Primary prevention control measures aim at reducing or eliminating causal factors by modification of the community and environment and in addition, individual and family life styles and behaviors.  For instance, good nutritional practices are proven to boost the immune system and hence reducing the risk chances for getting the tuberculosis diseases. Furthermore health education on matters related to prevention of tuberculosis for instance, educating the community on importance of avoiding overcrowding place and building houses that are properly ventilated and practicing hygiene measures are primary measures put in place to prevent infections from Tuberculosis.

Secondary Prevention

Secondary tuberculosis prevention measures, focuses strategies to slow or stop the development of tuberculosis. It comprises screening and detection for tuberculosis for early diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and follow-up prevents further spread of the disease and re-infections respectively. Secondary prevention control measures target those individuals who are more vulnerable to Tuberculosis because of family history, health condition, age, lifestyle and environmental factors. For instance, people with HIV, the under fives, and malnourished individuals are more susceptible to tuberculosis than adults and healthier individuals (Wilson 2009).

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Tertiary Prevention

Tertiary prevention measures is aimed  at rehabilitating and managing the  persons who are already  infected with tuberculosis  illness and diagnosed with the disease conditions to decrease disability, complications, recover the individuals’ quality of life and increase their years of efficiency. Feeding tuberculosis patients with well balance diets and taking proper medication are examples of tertiary prevention control measures.


Tuberculosis is a vital reemerging illness with increasing worldwide mortality and morbidity. tuberculosis is even recognized the most significant resurgent illness globally, for the reason that Tuberculosis has the highest mortality and morbidity rate in relation to any other single pathogenic organism .In Egypt Tuberculosis following bilharzias, is the second most significant public health problem. Tuberculosis is a contagious illness regularly of persistent nature nevertheless acute cases are intermittently met with.


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