An epidemic occurs when new issues of a particular disease, in a given human population, and during a given period of time, substantially is above what is expected basing on the previous encounters. The disease may not be necessarily communicable, for instance, cancer, heart problems, and even swine flu, which may strike and leave a devastating death toll. With many people shifting from one place to another around the world each and every day, diseases get transferred from across boundaries within days and even hours. Recent research shows that epidemics are threats to the country's economy as well as a public health menace, whereas the tools and the experts are available to help eliminate epidemics (Tulchinsky 16). Also political commitment and financial support are very much required to ensure that all nations have systems in place to examine, analyze, and react to diseases immediately they occur.
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There is no doubt that disasters have always been part of human history, long before literate societies emerged to record them, yet in the twenty first century they have become increasingly significant in shaping human societies. The ever-growing global population tends to cluster around points of geographical niches prone to natural disasters like the earthquakes, floodings, hurricanes, and droughts. Medical anthropology as a holistic discipline involves several vital concepts in its perspective on disasters and crisis like diachronicity, adaptation, and evolution, the comparative nature of affected units including both micro and macro levels, and the vulnerability and resilience of people and groups that are affected. It is very important to acknowledge that it is the group ethos that shapes the manner in which people respond to crises and disasters. Although anthropologists have been involved in disaster studies, they prefer to focus more on the responses of traditional peoples to specific events (Tulchinsky 78).
The role of power and politics in the productions of pathogies in the public health
In the process of implementing health policy, the United States government started by caring for its own, its armed forces and veterans. In the early years of the region, the health of the entire population was addressed only in practices that aimed at the control of epidemics. From the start of the twentieth century, the federal government had an interest in taking an active part in medicine and public health, but its interests were limited to preventing or attacking epidemic diseases, through quarantine and sanitation promotion, with a very modest commitment of public funds.
The health officials chosen by political leaders and the government leaders have the responsibility to define public health policy and programs that is within the working frame of pertinent legislation and what is necessary to the political leadership. The civil services officials are called upon to take independent positions on controversial public health issues without threats to their professional careers.
The political economy of the public health crisis of epidemics
As the concept of public health has evolved and the value of medical care has improved through scientific and technological advances, societies have identified health as an important part area of activity of collective bargaining and government. With this process, the requirement for managing health care resources has become more clearly defined as a public responsibility. In the developed countries each with various political make up, national responsibility for universal access to health became part of the social ethos. Investment in public health is an important part of socioeconomic development. The main suppliers of funds, leadership in health infrastructure development, provision of health services, and health payment system are the government. The government has also the responsibility in the development of health promotion and regulation of the environment, food, and drugs essential for community health. Health care funding may involve taxation, allocation, or special mandatory requirement on employers to pay for health insurance services. The epidemic crisis was an expression of historical and existing social inequalities because most victims experiencing this kind of issues are people of low social status, thus have no proper means to use in the prevention or elimination of such epidemics. The most vulnerable people are individuals from the rural areas.
The role played by the local, state, and government officials in epidemic crisis
The government and the state attempted to take serious measures to enhance institutional capacities to cope with crises such as epidemic diseases like the severe acute respiratory syndrome. There are some long term measures that have been restructured in the public health system in particular and the entire health care regime in general. Investment in public health is very much expected to rise up and national epidemic information feedback and dissemination systems have been set up in various places. More particularly, the health care systems have been strengthened in the rural areas. This processes and development have been motivated because the government has learned a hard lesson of not underestimating the importance of investing in such crucial social infrastructure as the health care sector as it were to respond promptly to any viral outbreak in the near future (Byme 89).
Public health's duties in emergencies and disasters has the roots in responding to epidemics of infectious diseases. The local, state and government have taken time to investigate more in the outbreaks of epidemics. These investigations are the key components of public health's strengths to react to epidemics and other acute diseases, and they are most of the time successful because they are handled by the local, state, and government organizations and agencies.however,the center for disease prevention and control may be summoned to offer assistance if its needed.
How public health was communicated and the role of risk communication
Health risk communication is a process that involves more than just a simple explanation of a healthy risk to the public. It involves ensuring that there are solid understanding of community issues and a well planned, multicomponent communication program that can help get the feedback needed, reduce tension by enhancing freedom between the community and the health care agencies, and motivating communities to take precautions that can protect their health (Smith, 34).
Beyond the local, state and national government officials handled the crisis, the publics understanding of the crisis would have been better understood through medical anthropology that vulnerability and resilience are factors that are key to understanding the consequences of disasters. These factors can be identified at a personal level, household, and community levels.
An epidemic is a problem that occurs when new issues of a particular disease, in a given human population, and during a given period of time, substantially is beyond what is expected basing on the recent experiences. An epidemic that happens over a wide geographical area is referred to as a pandemic. The increase and decline in epidemic prevalence of an infectious disease is a probability phenomenon dependent upon transfer of an effective dose of the infectious agent from an infected individual to a susceptible one. The disease may not be communicable for instance cancer, heart problems, and even swine flu. With the increasing rates of migration from one place to another, and from one country to another around the world each and every day, diseases get transferred from different boundaries. Resent research shows that epidemics are threats to the country's economy as well as a public health menace, whereas the tools and the experts are available to help eliminate epidemics.
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