Table of Contents
The use of effective procedures is required in the prevention of the substantial increment in adiposity common among adults and children. The existence of behavioral alterations comes resulting from variable changes mediating interventions. The presence of variables typically originates from the existence of theories and models, which are reviewed in the definitions of concepts and the identification of motivational mechanisms. The resources needed for one’s change, the processes of behavioral change and the promotional procedures necessary for change. Despite the fact that every model has a remedy for obesity prevention, the earlier remedies are achievable with the help of substantial increment in research where the models are applicable to physical activities and diets in regards to obesity (Ayers, 2001).
The most effective research is by using the new variants concerning the theory of planned behavior and social ecology. The achievement of synergy could be through employing the most effective concept from every model and using them to the population in question. Biology-based procedure is an eating or identified physical activity. The researchers’ issues are meant to integrate biological and behavioral approaches to comprehend physical activity and eating behaviors. The procedures for social marketing give much in terms of organization and strategy of behavioral alteration programs for incorporation of these theoretical ideas.
Occurrence of obesity is exceedingly prevalent in the United States. The increment of obesity commenced about 20 years ago. In the event, that the problem is not curbed more cases of heart problem, cancers, and type 2 diabetes will be on the rise in the United States. Currently, the problem of obesity prevalence has become an international priority. The energy balance equation advocate that increment of adiposity is an inadequate energy expenditure net result. In case of energy expenditure, physiological and metabolic anomalies of energy usage may come in handy for some of the obesity cases, which seem to be brought about by limited physical activities. Although much intake of fats may result to the problem, high intake of other nutrients could also result in to this condition. Notably, obesity has been related with numerous behaviors; for instance, intake of soft drinks and inversely related with taking of breakfast. It has a relation with immense consumption of vegetables. Most social science or behavioral theories and other conceptual models give a comprehension of these behaviors. The existence of mediating variable models has been suggested as a framework to design intervention or comprehends the working of the interventions in promoting changes in physical activities and diet behaviors.
The mediating variables are in a sequence that is a cause- effective existing between an outcome and intervention. This led to the employment of program inventions results in the alteration of behavior due to alterations in mediating variables. There exists proportionality in this respect where the alterations in mediating variables leads to changes in one’s behavior this also changes the expected anthropometric and physiological outcomes. The mediating variable is affected by the behavior of interest; it originates from the conceptual and theoretical behavior of models. The interventions are meant to be effective in case, the mediating variables are highly associated with behavior of interest and incase the procedures for controlling these mediating variables in a given direction. Therefore, the eating theoretical model and physical exercises behavior give a provision of possible mediating variables that form a basis for effective behavior program for obesity prevention. The mediation variable can also be utilized in the analysis about the variables that are cause-effect sequence resulting from other environmental or cognitive behavior effects (Institute of Medicine, 2005).
The intervention program does not have a consistency in its working in that it might work for one category of people but not for the other. It may work for one level of category of variable but not the other. The variable defining these level or groups of varying results are also called moderating variables or effect moderators. Those variables that the models have a varied prediction could be the moderating variables. Most decisions are influenced by psychological, behavioral, biological, and environmental circumstances. For instance, absconding to take breakfast could be associated with reduction of energy intake. Most of the foods served in the fast-food restaurant are rich in energy percentages. The situations of where one becomes physically active before the intake of any food may leave one with a high craving for energetic foods. This influences ones decision on the food that he intends to consume. For instance, when one eats in a fast-food restaurant, one’s choice of food depends on the foods that most people are eating. The alteration of the procedure could have the potential of modifying the intake of food.
A number of these procedures can be employed in the strategy of modification of the food consumed. For instance, people can always take an afternoon snack, like a yogurt, which can work in helping one minimize the portions, consumed during dinner. One could also result in to using plenty of vegetables and fruits to minimize the intake of fats in the body. These alterations of practice could still be employed in physical activities, which have the same sequential dependencies. For instance, one has to decide on engaging in physical activities this is always different from eating, since one must eat to stay alive, but in the same sense, the decision for one to be active is meant for one’s health benefit.
The decision for one to be active for their health sake has a relation with psychological, environmental, biological, and environment factors. For instance, it depends with whom one is spending time with, the activity they are undertaking, or whether they are engaged in a discouraging or encouraging activity. Other factors that influence ones decisions are the generic factors. Some people are comfortable with some activity while others are not. Others factors could include ecological factors, which could be social or physical surrounding. One’s decision to quit from an activity could be cognitive.
An effective intervention program employs model-specified steps to boost one’s motivation and resources that can be altered along the specified processes. Varied step could be advantageous at varied decisions in the altering of behavioral procedures. Some variables are considered as the moderators to the effect of existing programs. For instance, numerous programs have a record of promoting change among boys but, when it comes to the girls, it does not work. In this case, the sex of the child could be regarded as a moderator for effectiveness of a program. The commonest employed behavioral alteration step; target setting had proved being workable when children could not prefer certain food, as opposed to when the children preferred that same food. The food that the child preferred was the moderator used for evaluating the effectiveness of goal setting. The variables can moderate the effectiveness of a program placed in any place along the system ranging from program design to anthropometric alteration results.
The model employed in the prevention of obesity should be in a position to answer the question on the reason why people intend to alter their behavior, or the motivation behind one’s change. They establish personal resources that could be employed in making the change effective. One should identify the processes to be employed for one’s behavioral alteration, and the decision involved in the performance of behavior, a step that most encourages ones behavior alteration in these mediators (Hodges, 2006).
Knowledge at times is a sensible prerequisite to the intentional action of behaviors that have a relation to one’s behaviors. The relationship between knowledge and behavior has not been elucidated. Various knowledge types can influence eating and physical activity decisions. The knowledge- Attitude-Behavior (KAB) model has been suggested as a method of defining the importance of knowledge. KAB model suggests that one’s behavior has a gradual change, as opposed to abrupt. Once there is the accumulation of knowledge in a health behavior domain, there is an initiation of attitude changes, which results to change of behavior.
One’s attitude change is a motivational force. Attitude can be viewed as an easy set of pluses and minuses, the beliefs concerning the existence of behavioral mechanism or something much complex. The model relates that one is rational hence the name the theory of Enlightened Self-Interest. There has been a concern that various people are not in the habit of exhibiting the traits that are considered rational. Ones attitude has a likelihood of affecting the decisions made on food eaten and physical activity event.
The basic sources in this model appear to being knowledge accumulation. The accumulation cascades into alteration in behaviors and attitudes. The procedure through which these behavioral alterations appear in KAB models has not been specified. The commonest process for promoting alterations is by employing this model through information provision. Regularly it appears in the form of school curricula.
Behavioral Learning Theory
Behavioral Learning Theory (BLT) was the initial method of learning people’s behavior. According to this theory, the behaviors form in response to stimuli. The number of times of a behavior occurrence after a stimulus amplifies when the behavior is reinforced. The factors that have a strong enforcing value are considered to have an effect on one’s behavior. It has been suggested that the working of the enforcers has much to do with reduction of physiological drive. The physiological drive could be thirst or hunger. BLT does not require thoughts and cognitive explanations of behavior. The recent BLT version employed to obesity is the Behavioral Economics model. Economics suggest that behavior is coming about resulting from costs and benefits. Benefits could be interpreted as reinforcement. The reinforcing behaviors of value or the result of these behavior deviate between people. People on diet are normally impulsive in getting food reinforcers (Robinson, 1991).
Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model (HBM) was the initial conceptual model of the development of behavior with a chief concern of issues affecting the public health. The principle HBM structure involves perceived susceptibility, and existing severity. Early usage of HBM emphasized on mono preventive behaviors; for instance, participating in the screening of tuberculosis. The basic motivation to alter within HBM is the status of impending threat or the dangers of a certain condition (Robinson, 1991).
In conclusion, the presence of variables typically originates from the existence of theories and models, which are reviewed in the definitions of concepts and the identification of motivational mechanisms. KAB model suggests that one’s behavior has a gradual change, as opposed to abrupt. Once there is the accumulation of knowledge in a health behavior domain, there is an initiation of attitude changes, which results to change of behavior. The recent BLT version employed to obesity is the Behavioral Economics model.