Over the years, globalization has had effects on diversity and culture in different nations around the world (Ervin & Smith, 2008). For this reason, there are different perspectives, based on globalization as it has dominant influences on both the individual and society. This is because the effects of globalization play a significant role through the interconnectivity of various aspects of the world, ranging from economic, political, cultural, and technological. As a result, globalization has led to the strengthening of cross-border economic and social interactions among organizations and people, thus, developing the global economy (Ervin & Smith, 2008). Even though globalization could have negative effects like democratization and socioeconomic modernization, it is more beneficial as it eliminates the barriers of communication, trade, and cultural exchange that enhance many changes in the society. It is, therefore, necessary to look at the effects of diversity and culture on globalization in depth.
In order to understand the effects of culture and diversity on globalization it is critical to know what the two components involve, especially in the globalization aspect (Diller, 2011). It is, therefore, necessary to understand that globalization is founded by the presence of several studies that challenge to diminish its importance, with the significance of not revealing the dangers, according to some and its favorable effects for others (Ritzer, 2011). As there exists many cultures in different parts of the world among different groups there are different meanings in terms of histories and places (Ervin & Smith, 2008). Culture in the context of globalization involves ethnicity, the way of life, race, socio-cultural group, customs, nation, civilization, tradition, and color. More significantly, culture creates the boundaries of ethnicity, class, race, generation, gender, and territory within the multicultural society that exists today (Ervin & Smith, 2008).
Diversity in the globalization perspective involves the multicultural nature of the society that involves the existence of cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity (Ervin & Smith, 2008). As a result of globalization, the effects of culture and diversity comprise of the cultural diversity effects on the society that arises from globalization (Diller, 2011). According to Ervin & Smith (2008), the main components of cultural diversity include gender, ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic variations. There exists a close association between cultural diversity and globalization, because there would be a homogenous world if globalization existed without diversity. This is because in a homogeneous world, all nations or regions would have the same social and economic structure with the same supply side and the demand side, although there would be differences of quantitative level, leading to internationalization.
As globalization involves gradual global associations between people, culture, and economic activity, its process entails the components of change in the structure of markets and technological change (Ervin & Smith, 2008). However, as these two broad components tend to reinforce each other, the effects of culture and diversity on globalization play a significant role in defining the cultural component of a society (Ritzer, 2011). It is, therefore, necessary to look at the positive and negative effects of culture and diversity on globalization, in the different contexts of internationalization, liberalization, universalization, and westernization (Ervin & Smith, 2008).
As globalization spreads worldwide over the nations, there are several positive impacts that its effects has on the society. Notably, globalization has increased the pace of growth in international trade, as it has inevitable interconnectedness in all aspects of social life, including that of the cultural aspects (Ervin & Smith, 2008). This is more significant because culture, as an aspect, in the process of globalization is essential, especially whereby cultural globalization involves an increased exchange of cultural practices between people and their nations. Equally, it eventually results in the realization of cultural diversity effects on globalization (Ervin & Smith, 2008). While it is necessary to understand that the changes in cultural practices existed before the beginning of civilization, thus, diversity and culture has had certain impacts on globalization. Diller (2011) explains that through the analysis of concepts—homogenization, polarization, and hybridization effects on global economy - an individual understands the impact, cultural diversity has on the globalization process. This is because culture is the history, beliefs, customs, habits, and values of different people. It, thus, determines the ways, in which individuals respond to and adapt to changes in the world. This is because local culture establishes the people’s values and priorities. Culture determines the slightest preferences like food and collective goal such as communication and economic well-being (Diller, 2011). Thus, culture becomes an important dimension of globalization, especially in the emergence of paradigm shift from political and economic to cultural realm of globalization.
Globalization affects the culture through individuals’ history, beliefs, customs, habits, and values, thus, resulting to the early human migration, emergence of world religions, early imperial systems, and the development of inter-regional trade networks (Schroeder, 2006). However, globalization effect on culture through global communication and media becomes significant. This is because global communication comprises of different technologies and medium that result from the cultural globalization that includes interpersonal communication, information exchange, and media (Ervin & Smith, 2008). Thus, components of cultural effects, as a result of globalization, involve the westernization from the cultural dimension of globalization. This is because rapid urbanization, congestion, and heightened inequalities have led to the decline of traditional values, increased emotional stress, and other negative manifestations of prosperity (Vaidya, 2006). In addition, globalization has led to the assimilation of Western cultural beliefs and practices to other regions of the world. Therefore, today, globalization has led to religious and cultural movements that, in turn, caused an increase in secularism, individualism, and consumerism (Ervin & Smith, 2008). Even though many individuals view globalization as a phenomenon, it acts as a homogenizing force that makes local cultures outdated. This is evident, because many nations worldwide have assimilated Western influence to the framework of their local cultures, leading to hybridization.
Cultural hybridization emphasizes on the mixing of cultures because of globalization, besides production and integration of global and local markets. The global process involves the integration of different local cultures to produce a distinctive hybrid form that indicates the continuous global heterogenization (Vaidya, 2006). As globalization of local cultures tends to change, utmost people are able to adapt to these changes through developing hybrid identity that comprises of life in local culture and global culture too. Nonetheless, people who understand the difficulties of adapting to rapid changes in their cultures result into the clash of cultures (Diller, 2011). This is because the images, values, and opportunities imparted by the global culture undermine their perceived values of individuals’ local cultures.
In some instances, globalization has led to delocalization, cultural displacement, deterritorialization, or cultural loss (Ervin & Smith, 2008). This is because as the people increase their global consciousness, they tend to lose ties with the place and culture where they live (Tierney, 2007). The common use of television and computers has brought this transformation because this influences the local culture, while allowing access to information in many other places. There is no doubt that the current generation will grow up, exposed to rapid cultural changes, delocalization, and cultural loss (Vaidya, 2006). Even as globalization grows, there has been an observed decline in the power of collectivism. In addition, individuals also face difficulties in finding a relevant meaning of current worldview in their traditional culture such as individualism and consumerism (Ervin & Smith, 2008). This is because today’s world has changed, thus, is not indigenous, and could directly contradict the cultural traditions.
Since globalization involves more than one nation in the whole world, it is important to understand the association between internationalization, and globalization, as they affect the cultural diversity of individuals in a community (Ervin & Smith, 2008). This is because internationalization majorly replicates an implicit reference, based on the diverse activities and processes that spread out away from national boundaries. More significantly, internationalization involves the strengthening of some historical developments in diverse perspectives (Vaidya, 2006). Internationalization emphasizes more towards the improvement of human knowledge through undertaking its establishment on the connection of humanity with one another.
On the other hand, globalization is different from internationalization in one way or the other; this is because most people consider globalization as a contemporary phenomenon that began in the 19th century during the growth of western imperialism (Ervin & Smith, 2008). In addition, the focus of globalization differs with that of internationalization, as it, mainly, focuses towards profit and worldwide market in the global economy, rather than on the advancement of human knowledge. Furthermore, globalization revolves around competition, exploitation, combat, and survival of the fittest among the well-off nation as evident on the global market today (Ervin & Smith, 2008).
This is evident because of the developed nation’s domineering over the developing ones, as they enjoy the positive benefits of globalization (Ervin & Smith, 2008). On the contrary, the primary form of internationalization differs as compared to that of globalization as it involves mutual benefit, cooperation, collaboration, and caring. In addition, globalization differs from internationalization as it is essentially not administered, which is contrary to internationalization that is described by proper governance, as there exists cautious quality control (Ervin & Smith, 2008).
Globalization can also be corresponding to universalization. This is because universalization refers to the making goods, services, culture, and communication to attain the global standards (Ervin & Smith, 2008). It is, therefore, significant that as a result of intensification, there exist nation’s interdependencies in various aspects of social life, regardless of territorial borders (Diller, 2011). Universalization differs from globalization, as it refers to the incorporation of the global society, based on the capitalist principles. As a result, globalization focuses on commercialization of the world at all levels, including financial and economic factors, cultural, political, and communicative (Ervin & Smith, 2008). Nevertheless, the effects of neo-liberal globalization at most violate one important and very crucial goal of universalization as it is not equal to human rights and well-being of underprivileged nations.
Another factor that can be equivalent to globalization is liberalization. This is because they both result in the removal or relaxation of existing government restrictions in terms economic and social policies. As a result of the effects of liberalization on the existing government restrictions, the global economy enjoys free flow of goods and service. This is because when a government demands for the liberalization of trade, it will remove all regulations and restrictions that hinder free trade such as tariff, subsidies, and taxes (Ervin & Smith, 2008). In addition, the government will also liberalize the most important industries through licensing of new favorable industrial policy. As a result of the globalization effect where all nations liberalize their own trading systems, the results will lead to the free flow of goods and services from one nation to another (Ervin & Smith, 2008).
More significantly, researches also contribute towards a more thorough understanding of universalism because it looks into the western concepts such as citizenship, state, human rights, and liberal economics. It is, therefore, significant that globalization about capitalist development consists of a deeply rooted process of modernization. Hence, globalization enhances the continuous and long-term process of modernity (Schroeder, 2006). One of the most apparent ideals of globalization is to fill in development gap primarily through liberalization; thus, globalization has become an inevitable process, as it replaces the notion of civilization and development.
As globalization describes the increased flow of knowledge, goods and services, and resources among nations, it signifies the growth of an integrated global economy that is marked by free flow of capital, free trade, and the exploiting of cheaper global labor markets. On the other hand, globalization focuses on unifying people into a single society, therefore, they can function together (Schroeder, 2006). This is because the globalization process involves a complex combination of technological, socio-cultural, political, and economic forces.
In addition, the three major forces of liberalization, internalization, and universalism contribute to the globalization process. This is because liberalization of capital structures and deregulation, opening of free trade and international competition, and the equally important role of information and communication technologies result to cultural diversification effects. Thus, the history of globalization has a close relationship with the history of liberalization and industrialization, free trade, and technological advancements (Ervin and Smith, 2008).
On the other hand, human beings find it necessary to understand that globalization exists in different contexts. This is because, according to some individuals, globalization is a purely economic phenomenon (Ervin & Smith, 2008). However, the effects of globalization process have been apparent to directly and indirectly affect the economic, social, and cultural aspects of a society. As a result, there are the perceived and forecasted effects of globalization still in the economic, social, and cultural dimensions, as they arise from the observed trend changes from globalization.
Since the globalization process involves the alteration of the social relations and transactions, it affects the social life of individuals in a society. This is because globalization, over time, has made social interactions to be widespread, intensive, and fast. As a result, the social world of today’s world has undergone drastic changes as seen through an international flow of interaction and networks of activity and exercise of power (Schroeder, 2006). In addition, as globalization intensifies the social relations through links among individuals, it has led to a local setting that affects the international scope in one way or another. Therefore, globalization has positively influenced how individuals interact, regardless of geographical and cultural boundaries as they view all cultures equally. However, Tierney (2007) asserts that the social dimension of globalizations has negatively led to the inequality in income, racial and gender discrimination; this is mainly attributable to the increased diversity in the workplace, internationalization of higher education.
On the other hand, globalization, in terms of economic impact, focuses on industry, trade, and liberalization of markets. In terms of economics effects from globalization, the historical process results from human innovation and technological advancements. Globalization is significant in the increase of integration of economies among nations around the world through financial flows and internationalization of trade. As globalization also involves the movement of people for labor and technology across international borders, the liberalization of markets that results from the free flow of trade and investments leads to an international economy (Ervin & Smith, 2008). Even though globalization seems to expand the economic freedom in the market, increase competition, and increases productivity of the economy, it has other effects.
Other economic effects that result from globalization consist of the increase in technology, transportation, and liberalization of trade. As a result of globalization, the global economic market gains improved productivity by firms, as goods, services, and information turn out to be internationalized. In addition, globalization improves the transport network; therefore, companies can transfer their products across national borders to other nations, while the foreign direct investment (FDI) increases worldwide (Ervin and Smith, 2008). On the other hand, as globalization is impartial to liberalization it involves removal of existing government restrictions, thus, leading to a free system of trade in the global economy. Thus, globalization aims to liberalize trade, as it removes all regulations and restrictions, economic and social aspects that could slow down and hinder free trade. As a result of globalization effects, the government is able to provide licenses and industrial policies that support major industries, leading to a steady global economic market.
Given that globalization process brings about a paradox shift in the culture of a given society, it is necessary to look out at the various economic, political, social, cultural factors that arise from globalization. Even though liberalization demonstrates the economic perspective towards globalization, there is a need to also focus on universalization, as it focuses on the social factors that comprise globalization. According to many individuals, they have lost their culture, as they face a life that is always having a feeling of loss and deprivation (Ervin & Smith, 2008).
Even with internationalization, leading to political alliances between nations, the cultural realm, the cultural and diversity impacts on globalization mainly center on inter-existence of homogenization, polarization, and hybridization. There is no doubt that there exist different perspectives, based on globalization, as it has dominant influences on both the individual and society (Ervin & Smith, 2008). However, the effects of globalization play a significant role through the interconnectivity of various aspects of the world, ranging from economic, political, cultural, and technological.
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