Aggression refers to a situation where members of a certain species conduct themselves intentionally to harm others, either in the same species or from a different one. Aggression assumes a different form in different people. According to Wilson (2000), aggression means an abridgment of the right of other, forcing him/her to surrender something he owns or might otherwise have attained, either by a physical act or by threat of action (p.242). Aggression behavior generally aims at harming others, thus why Wilson (2000) continue to say that, agonistic behavior cannot be defined any more precisely than behavior in certain cases, and term is generally important only in referring to physiological interrelatedness of aggressive and submissive response (p. 242).
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According to Zillmann (1979) aggressive model are capable of explaining a specific form of aggression (p. 7). Typically, the usual theories of aggression have entailed collective claims. Presumably due to procedural restrictions that make collection of decisive empirical data very difficult, theories of human aggression have frequently been considered supported by findings that are doubtful validity and that only loosely relate to preposition tested (p. 7). This paper focuses on general aggressive model, frustration aggressive, and drives theories.
General Aggressive Model is a model suggesting that, both individual variations and conditional factors lead to aggressive thoughts. According to Sanderson (2009), general aggressive model combines all factors that increase the likelihood of aggression (p. 393). General Aggression model, is one of the newest theories which combines earlier theories on aggression with cognitive schemata theory (Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Smith & Tosca, 2008, p. 229). The cognitive schemata theory advocates the order of experiences in various schemata applied when perceiving new experiences. As Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Smith & Tosca (2008), explain most theories refer to media the media in general; however, general aggression model, developed with video games in mind (p. 229).
General aggressive model is an incorporative, social-cognitive account showing how wide range of factor affects the development of tendencies with time, how vastly aggressive contexts are formed, and how psychological procedure facilitate aggressive and violent deeds. General Aggressive Model involves both long-term and short-term biological and environmental impacts; it perceives aggression in various kinds of cycles. General Aggressive Model shows means of reducing violence at individual, society, national, and global levels.
Frustration aggression occurs when people feel that they are being denied an opportunity of attaining their objectives. This is practically normal because the closer one get to the goal, the greater the inspiration and eagerness of the pleasure. Aggression is normally driven towards the cause or factors which lead to the frustration; however, in a situation where this is not possible, the aggression is directed onto another object. “The frustration aggression hypothesis has been readily accepted by many sociologist and psychologists as a useful research tool” (Wolfgang & Ferracuti, 2003). It is an appropriate approach to the issue of violence, compared to other theories. Wolfgang and Ferracuti (2003), argues that few psychologists would presently assert that the presence of frustration inevitably results to some form of aggression (p. 143).
Drive theory basis its perception on the needs, which compels people into taking some action, thus reducing those desires by satisfying the needs. These needs are founded on the principle that organisms are developed with some psychological needs. According to Weiten (2008) say drive theories have been very influential, and the drive concept continues to be widely applied in modern psychology (p. 397).
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