eGFR – Estimation of the glomerular filtrate rate PCR – Polymerase chain reaction
NSAIDs – Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ARF – Acute renal failure
ARB – Angiotensin II receptor blockers BP – Blood pressure
ACEi – Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors CDK – Chronic kidney disease
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known as chronic renal disease. It is defined as a condition that affects the functioning of the kidneys, and that may worsen to kidney failure. It occurs in five stages.
Risk factors of CKD
Diabetes – The risk of suffering from kidney disease increases with the length of time one has had diabetes.
High blood pressure (hypertension) - One of the kidney’s functions is to regulate blood volume, which is an important factor in hypertension.
Drug use, overuse of pain killers and allergic reactions to antibiotics – may cause kidney inflammation that can lead to kidney failure..
Macroalbuminaria – A simple test can detect abnormal amounts of albumin in urine. These abnormal amounts increase vulnerability to chronic kidney disease.
Low HDL cholesterol – The ‘good’ HDL cholesterol is more significant than total cholesterol, although high total cholesterol is also a risk factor.
Trauma/accident, some surgeries and certain radio-contrast dyes that doctors use to monitor blood flow can damage the kidneys or reduce blood flow to the kidneys, causing acute kidney failure. Sometimes acute kidney failure will get better, but it may lead to CKD.
Family history of kidney disease- individuals from families that have a medical history of any kidney disease are at a high risk of suffering.
Premature Birth – About one in five very premature infants (less than 32 weeks gestation) may have calcium deposits in the kidney nephrons. This condition is termed as nephrocalcinosis. Sometimes, individuals with this condition may go on to develop kidney problems later in life.
Age-The highest risk factor is living to be more than 60 years old. This is because kidney functioning is greatly reduced in older people.
Inflammation- C-Reactive protein is an important biomarker of inflammation. A test result of 12.8 mg/dl was identified as the highest risk, while a result of 0.21 was the lowest risk.
Low income- just like any other health issue, low income earners are at higher risk because of poor access to health facilities.
Race/ethnicity-According to study, Non-Hispanic whites have the highest risk, followed by non-Hispanic blacks. Mexican Americans have the lowest risk.
Periodontal status – Any stage of gum disease is a risk factor.
Other diseases like systematic lupus erythematosus, sickle cell anemia, cancer, AIDS, hepatitis C, and congestive heart failure
According to a certain study, a non-Hispanic white over the age of 60 with high blood pressure, high C-creative protein, and high albumin in the urine has a 72% probability of chronic kidney disease. Someone with all the risk factors has a 98% probability.
Symptoms of chronic kidney disease
Changes in urination: color, contents, frequency of urination and the amount of urine.
Swelling – in the event of kidney failure, excretory substances including extra fluids accumulate in various body parts. This causes the body parts to swell.
Other symptoms include: loss of appetite, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, skin rashes/itching, metallic taste in the mouth/ammonia breath, dizziness and lack of concentration, leg/flank pains, shortness of breath, a feeling of coldness, high blood pressure, chest and bone pains.
Prevention and medication
Chronic kidney disease can be managed with diet annual check-ups. It is mostly prevented by treating the risk factors and any other disease whose symptoms are observed. Proper lifestyle like avoiding smoking, eating low fat food, and regular exercises are also necessary. Therapy (ACEi or ARB) are used in the early stages of the disease. Its goal is to halt or slow down progression to stage 5. During advance stages of the disease, dialysis or a kidney transplant should be done so as to rescue the situation.