Glacier National Park is located in the state of Montana of the USA bordering the Alberta and British Colombia. It encompasses over four thousand square kilometers, and it is large enough to hold over one thousand different species of animals and plants and about 130 lakes, internationally recognized. The park also offers a wide range of social amenities like hotel and conferencing, event organization, mountain climbing and hiking among others. To embrace these entire features, the park has a lot of geological activities that attract many tourist and scientists who visit it yearly.
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The geological formation of the Glacier National Park consists of sedimentary, igneous, limestone, quaternary and dolomite rocks, and diorite sill. Their difference in chemical formation and their place of origin, that is, near shore and deeper water environment can explain the vast color pattern formation on the mountain. The stromatolites, ancient fossils, provide evidence as to the early chemical and physical formation of the rocks. These fossils have a lot of calcium content in them.
The various rocks have different formation processes. Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary processes are responsible for the formation of the corresponding rocks. When an active volcano erupted, the lava flew out of it. Quick cooling resulted into many small crystals. Bubbles gushing out of the crystal formed holes in the rock, resulting into the formation of igneous rocks. The diorite sill was formed deep in the earth’s crust from cooling magma in this manner. It is recognized by its dark- banded coloring, running through pale gray Helena formation rocks. One may confuse it for a granite rock. It forms thirty to hundred meters intrusion in the Helena rocks. The mud stones found along the shores indicate a lot of marine environments.
After the magma cools and forms igneous rocks, many forms of erosion come into action. These include the running, wind, glaciers or ice, gravity and waves. These processes erode away the solid rocks initially formed when the magma is cooled. This results into the formation of landmasses such as the glaciated valleys, sea cliffs, desert monuments, sand dunes, river valleys and underground caverns. Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures (result of materials being added to landmass or tectonic plates) formed in the shallow water by water trapping, fastening and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms (a collection of microorganisms formed by cells stick on to each other on the exterior) of microorganisms, particularly the cyan bacteria. The sedimentary deposits of the Belt series were folded and uplifted approximately 65 to 70 years ago. They pushed the older Belt rocks laying them onto the younger ones. The Lewis Over thrust (a geological fault structure of the Rocky Mountains) provides an insight into the scientific geological processes that took place about 170 million years ago when it started forming. It sits on the Chief Mountain in the Glacier National Park. Erosion has shaped the mountain to look as it is today.
The sediments are then transported to another locality by one or more of the five named agents. At a certain point, the sediments cannot be carried any further, hence deposition occurs. The sediments are then compacted and cementation occurs. The underground rocks are exposed to high pressures and temperatures. The pressure squeezes the grain making the atoms to combine and in the process forming new types of rocks. The grains align to form foliations. This process is called metamorphism and it results in the formation of metamorphic rocks such as the gneiss, biotite, and quartz and plagioclase feldspar. The metamorphic rocks afterwards melt again.
I loved the park after paying a visit. It provides a lot of experience for the scientists, visitors and the ones who are looking for adventures.