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Communication can be defined as the process of exchanging messages both verbal as well as non verbal with an aim of passing an understandable massage. The study of communication is very important. First it helps to improve the way various people view us. It helps one to exercise his/her right to freedom of expression and speech. Communication help one succeed in his or her profession as well as teaching one crucial skills such as listening. Finally, it helps ones knowledge about various forms of relationships among human beings (Berlo, 1960).
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There various major elements of communication and they include, people who are the initiator of the communication process. Message is the second element of communication it can be defined as being information communicated from one person to another. Channel is another important element of communication; it entails the medium used to pass the message from one person to another. Feedback involves the information on whether the message was understood by the person to which it was intended (Barnlund, 2008). Other elements include code, noise, encoding and decoding.
Communication has certain principles. One of the principles of communication is that communication starts from and individual. Secondly communication is a process that is complicated where one has to choice between which aspects to use in order to pass his or her message to the intended audience. Thirdly, increased amount of communicated message does not in any way improve or increase the value communication. Finally communication is irreversible, inevitable as well as unrepeatable.
Intrapersonal communication can be viewed as the process by which messages are used to generate certain meanings by an individual. On the other hand, interpersonal communication can be defined as the process by which messages are used in generation of meaning between two or more people. Public communication on the other hand, is the process whereby messages are used in generation of meaning in a circumstance where one source is used to transmit message to large numbers of receivers (Schramm, 1954).
Communication competence can be defined as the effective exchange of meanings by use of common models/ systems of signs, symbols or behavior. The tenet of communication codes includes clarity in communication, reliability of communicated message among others.
Perception can be defined as the process by which one becomes aware of the various objects as well as events from the senses. Differences in perception usually occur due to a number of factors. Psychology is one of the influencing factors. This entails the state of mind that one is in at given particular time such as soberness, stress, anxiety or fear. Secondly, perception is also determined by the past experiences as well as the roles that one is playing in a given event. One the other hand culture as well as co-cultures determines the perception of an individual toward certain issues in life. Finally, the present as well as circumstances determines the perception of a person toward life or a certain situation.
During perception three different things occur namely selection, organization and finally interpretation. In the selection phase some stimuli are neglected and focus is based on others. It entails selective attention, exposure, perception and retention. The organization phase entails grouping stimuli into various meaningful units such as closure, figure and ground as well as proximity. Interpretation involves assigning of meaning to stimuli.
Some errors may occur when perceiving others. Fundamental attribution error occurs when one attributes the success of other people to the situation and failures of a given individual. Secondly, self serving bias error do occurs where we attribute success in life to personal qualities and failure to circumstances that we find ourselves into in our day to day activities (Goldstein& Bruce, 2009).
The way one view himself is in away related to communication. The kind of messages people pass to one another determines the how you view yourself. If they have negative perception about yourself in most cases you end up having the same perception they have toward you. Self fulfilling or actualization can be defined as the situation where one is able to fulfill his or her potentials in life. On the other hand, self image can be defined as the type of picture that one has about himself depending on the feedback received from others. Finally self esteem is how one feel bout his or herself based on the perceptions of his/ her successes as well as failures. Confirmation can taken the form of waiting to see whether a situation will produce positive results before decide on whether to engage yourself in that activity. Rejection can take the form of rejecting the situation for example rejecting that you have failed in an exam (Gregory & Zangwill, 1987).
In order to improve ones self concept the following steps can be taken. First step up a goal in life and ensure that the goal is realistic. The next step involves finding of information on the various ways that you can use to achieve your goal. Then exercise some control as well as restraint and also ensure that you have support from friends as well as family. Finally accept yourself the way you are.
Impression management entails the management of how one present himself before people. Actors use impression management to pass the intended message to their audience. On the other hand performance involves management of impression to make the performance more entertaining to the audience.