This is a report on Fukuyama’s End of History article that has been acclaimed because of it insights in the field of history and political science. This report endeavors to look at the different concept that Fukuyama address in his article. Beginning with a summary of the article, this paper will summarize the important arguments that are raised in the paper. In addition, this paper provides analysis of the article. The paper will look at research questions, argument as well as evidence provided in the article. The last part of the paper will present a personal opinion about the article.
Summary of Fukuyama’s End of History
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The End of History is one of the most influential articles of our time that addresses the changes in social, religious and economic orientation. In fact, this article has modernization has its own central theme, which is expounded to describe the many occurrences in the world. In his article Fukuyama goes to a greater extent to explain that the world has experienced new changes as a result of liberalism being at the front as compared to other ideologies that have been established. In a nutshell, Fukuyama advances his argument that western ideologies and their capitalist ideology have emerged as winner in a world where many similar ideologies are contending for recognition.
The kernel of the article is revolution of ideologies in the world. This is an event that Fukuyama terms as the “End of the World’, and is the main reason that motivates the articles. Notably, Fukuyama points to the fact that various ideologies such as fascism, communism and absolutism just to name a few, have been on the road to improvement. Nonetheless, he argues that the liberal ideologies have been a success in its part. Throughout the article, Fukuyama contends that liberal ideologies have gained more ground as compared to others like communism. Citing the case decline of the Soviet Union, Fukuyama point to the rise of western ideologies concerning how governments are run.
Before making a succinct end to his article, Fukuyama point to the triumph of liberal democracy that believes to be a sweeping force across the world. With the mention of weakening of nation such as Russia, the article predicts that the world systems are more likely to adopt a liberal world view that is devoid of other ideologies such as communism or fascism. However, Fukuyama direction in the article points at the rise of materialism in the modern world that that is characterized by western ideologies.
Analysis of Fukuyama’s End of History
Certainly, there are several fundamental questions that arise from the article. These questions are of great importance in shaping our understanding of the topic. To a greater extent, Fukuyama in his article centers on the question of progress of humanity. Rather than looking at the achievement of human history, Fukuyama poses the question of how government can rise and be accepted as legitimate centers of authority. To answer this question, he uses a number of philosophical underpinnings that are central in developing the concept of mankind moving from the lower cadre to higher cadre of development. In advancing his argument, Fukuyama uses the ideas of the end of history to indicate that man has made much progress towards modernity. In fact, the change in governments and historical events like the American Revolution, the abolition of the slave trade all point to a defined phase of progress.
The center of his though is on the absolute moment which can be traced to Hegel. Hegel is a well know thinker whose work dovetails with Fukuyama believe that the world is yet to face an absolute moment. Just like the other progressive efforts, Fukuyama thought are guided by the direction that change is being experienced. In making his assertions, Fukuyama dwells in the notion of materialism being a produce of consciousness. This means that world efforts to make a progressive move are grounded on the need of governments to triumph over those ideologies that are not progressive in any way.
Whereas Fukuyama borrows the idea of the end of history from Hegel, his believe about liberation of the humanity transcends that of the French Revolution to include those that are purely made of human freedom and the rise of democracy. According to Fukuyama, progress resulting from a revolution to a modern world is those that are centered on the provision of equality and liberty, which is characteristic of democratic forces.
In his article, Fukuyama addresses the question of conflict. He does this by looking at the centers of conflict as being the different world views that are associated with distinctive ideologies and people actions. This notion has been used to expand growth of a capitalistic society where this culture has taken root. Rather than relying on ideologies, Fukuyama argues that different societies have made progress based on the action rather than ideology. In explaining how this argument is widely depicted in the society, Fukuyama points to the economic success that has been associated with the protestant and not the Catholics. It is intriguing to note that Fukuyama believe that peoples actions at the core of the success rather than their holding of ideologies. Moreover, this is the underlying factor that makes the capitalistic world to progress rather than stagnate.
Fukuyama raises another important argument that is backed up with a well know example. In a more elaborate way, Fukuyama raises our attention to the economic progress made by many of the Eastern countries such as Japan and China. These countries have a different work ethics that has fueled significant progress that have made China and Japan to be reckoned forces in the business landscape. This argument is closely compared to the fact that most of the Western countries failed ot take off in their capitalistic pursuit. To fill the gap and finish the puzzle, Fukuyama assets that much the west have not made much progress owing to the ties with Muslim thinking that does not advocate for a capitalistic mind. This to use seem to be an indication that the attitude of the Catholics as portrayed in the article has no place in a capitalist society. Indeed, progress can be made by a culture that strives to meet the demand of the materialistic society.
One of the startling arguments raised is the connection between culture and economic progress. Culture has been closely associated with progress either negatively or positively. With a positive culture, Fukuyama posits that economic behavior takes roots and thus a central point for the achievement of economic empowerment in the society. Though the world has achieved much through production of goods and service, it is important to note that culture and consciousness are some of the guiding factor that reinforce positive progress. This notion is best illustrated by the Russians who abandoned an ideology to pursue their interest in a changing world because the idea was bankrupt and could not make them compete with the western world.
The conflict of ideologies is another important aspect that has taken shape in Fukuyama’s article. Through the reading of the article, it is evident that Fukuyama believes that the real threats to liberalism were fascism and communism. These are two ideologies that he contends to have great influence over the world. This is an interesting assertion that he backs up with the naming of Germany and Italy, which were the sponsors of the ideologies. The use of the Soviet Union as an example is also convincing given that the end of the Second World War marked the decline of the communist ideology. Fukuyama also gives example of how fascism in Japanese died because people could not be making value of it. Even after it has spread to Japan via a consumer culture, the growth of the ideology was not favored and lead to its decline. Certainly, this argument is true even when we consider other countries like China. Whereas China has been lauded for being a communist state by those who sympathize with this ideology, much of China achievement has been possible because of its capitalistic efforts. Today, China is regarded as an economic powerhouse being that communism has been made to play a second fiddle.
Most important, Fukuyama agree that much of the progress towards modernity has been possible because of economic triumph as compare to the success made my liberalism in the past. This is an interesting understanding bearing in mind the citation of countries like China and Japan that have made significant progress in the economic arena. In my own opinion, I believe that the arguments raised by Fukuyama are worth thinking about particular with their connection with modernity. The argument about the decline of the communist and other ideologist is vital and consistent with my understanding that liberalism has taken over. Whereas I still remain unsure of some notion like the decline of the Soviet’s a result of poor production capacity, I am confident that Fukuyama work exemplifies the end of history. With a progressive mind, I am very confident to say that much has been achieved in economic growth across the work, and whether it is west or east, the capitalist understanding has been of tool to make this happen.
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