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Ernest Hemmingway (1899–1961) is a renowned American writer and journalist whose distinct writing style earned him a spot as one of America’s literary legends. His works are now considered to be American classics. His distinct technique, the ‘Iceberg Theory,’ is heavily characterized by “understatement” or minimalism in terms of words and depiction. Today, his writing style is predominant in numerous fiction stories. Ernest Hemingway’s story entitled “Hills Like white elephants” describes a story at train station. The American with his female companion are arguing about theme of responsibility. He has the option to choose, but he does not know the consequences of his choice—until he gets there. The story constructs the point of destiny that people obtain based on their decision. Throughout the story, Ernest encompasses the result of any action taken in any point of human responsibility. Therefore, Hills Like white elephants are a contemplation of responsibility, choice, and repentance that lies behind the Hills Like white elephants. These Hills Like white elephants are not simple paths that the persona needs to take.
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Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to investigate how effective Ernest Hemingway has written his story of Hills Like white elephants. This involved identifying the effect of the story to the audience. Objectives of the research The main objectives of the research are to: • Find out the weaknesses that are in Hills Like white elephants • To establish and suggest a good framework of analysis and carrying out research. Methodology/theoretical underpinning This will help in the research because it involves research design of the study. It will mainly focus on the way in which research process is going to be selected, the reason in choosing the research design and how to use it. There are two approaches which are used in research design which are positivist and anti-positivist. In this case anti-positivist approach will be used on the context of literature review as well as the context of the research. This approach will be used in this research because the sample is small and qualitative analysis of the data is required.
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Summary of the story The Hills Like White Elephants is a short fiction about a couple whose relationship seems to be distressed by a significant circumstance. Reading further into the story reveals that the couple is actually considering a life-changing decision, which is, abortion. Although the idea of abortion was subtly embedded into the conversations, the readers could sense the urgency and magnitude of the “simple operation”. Reading between the lines would also reveal that it is the man who is completely resolute on having the abortion done. The woman, on the other hand, seems uncertain on what she should do. Manipulation tactics could be sensed as the man tries to persuade the woman that abortion is the best route for them both. He continually assures the woman that “It’s really and awfully a simple operation”, “I know you wouldn’t mind it, Jig. It’s really not anything. It’s just to let the air in,” and “I’ll go with you and I’ll stay with you all the time….. It’s all perfectly natural.” These manipulative words simply demonstrate that the man senses the woman’s hesitation to proceed with the abortion. Understandably so, since analysis of the setting during which the fiction was written shows society’s strong contention against abortion. The story was written in the 1920s when science and medicine were not at all advanced. The story’s setting was in Ebro, Spain. Spain is a largely Catholic country that abhors killing – and abortion is considered as murder. Thus, in the light of such background, we could say that the characters had these to consider: (1) Abortion is a dangerous operation which could endanger the mother’s life; and (2) The guilt that went with willfully killing their own offspring could last a lifetime. The conclusion of Hills Like White Elephants is anything but concluding. In fact, it leaves readers debating over what Jig actually decided on. However, it symbolically represented Jig’s unresolved dilemma. The other side of the station, which Jig referred to when she said “We could have everything,” and where fields of grain and trees extended, could mean the new beginning and the life with their baby -- a huge transformation from their present wandering state.
Meanwhile, the other side of the station – “the other tracks” – where their train was supposed to come through and where the people waiting for it were “drinking” represented their current lifestyle, wherein they did nothing but “look at things and try new drinks.” The fact that the man brought the bags to “the other tracks” and Jigs passively agreed with such decision seems to imply that the couple has made their choice. Jig’s words, “I feel fine,” also seems to indicate that she already has overcome the inner turmoil and has made her decision. That decision, however, is left unconfirmed. In conclusion, Hemmingway’s Hills Like White Elephants portrays scenes and conversations in an evocative and suggestive manner which requires the reader to use his or her imagination. What truly established this story as a classic work, are the revelatory conversations that embody Hemmingway’s iceberg theory.

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