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Coca Cola History

Coca Cola Company was started by a pharmacist in 1886, when the pharmacist was experimenting for an energizer and a recipe for headache.  Today coke is one of the best and well known suppliers of recognized brands with the highest unit sales of more than 3200 servings. Coke is also known as a healer and tonic with caffeine in late 1890’s. Coca Cola was the number one beverage supplier from 1900 to date.  Coca Cola is also one of the leading companies due to its rise in denomination attributed from improved leadership from various intelligent minds. Before the beginning of World War One, Coca Cola had already expanded and was introduced to more than 50 countries in the world. Today it is a well known accredited company with large brand value and net worth.

Pepsi Company

Pepsi Cola has a complex history that started from 1898. As Coca Cola was started, Pepsi was also started with a pharmacist who was experimenting different herbs and spices. Just after developing the taste, the pharmacist applied for a patent trademark for the company. After attainment of the trademark, the business grew and finally was registered in 1903. A strong franchise system was built to improve the effectiveness of the business and hence the success of the business worldwide. For Pepsi to build its brand name different, marketing campaigns made it possible.



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Financial Analysis of Coca Cola and Pepsi

Vertical Analysis

This is type of analysis method allows the entry of three main accounts of a particular company, in our case, it is Pepsi and Coca Cola Company. The three main accounts are equity, liabilities and assets. They are rationally presented inform of fractions of the total accounts. It is important to use this method when conducting financial analysis since it is used to compare and evaluate two or more companies. It also helps to track and determine changes of the elements of account in-terms of yearly basis. In addition, it can be used by investors to measure the investment levels.

Situation and Context Analysis in General


  • Polaroid will be the only company that will offer premium photographic films with its geographical operating area. With the limited of competition, this will allow Coca Cola to provide a totally unique experience for customers. Customers will be provided with a friendly environment.
  • Coca Cola will cater to customers who have different preferences by offering diversified number of products to clients.
  • Relatively low start-up cost since most of the raw materials are available locally.
  • Coca Cola will take advantage of the growing environmental concerns by the public by using and selling the majority of products that are green friendly.


  • Coca Cola has zero name and brand recognition entering the market.
  • The company overworks its workers due to the heavy demands needed.
  • Surrounding population is small and there is uncertainty that my business can survive through seasonality and long-term stability. 


  • Creating a niche market and stronghold on the premium sale of products internationally as well as at the national level.
  • Creating strong relationships within the community by creating promotional partnerships and local schools.
  • Packaging the unique products for purchase among local market in order to create more revenue.
  • Market segment is poised for steady growth over the next 10 years.


  • Market is price sensitive in core raw materials.
  • Threat of current competitors expanding photographic products and new competitors entering the market.
  • Economic downturn and high unemployment rate in the area may threaten the future success of Coca Cola with lower demand.

A Brief Timeline

1926; Land left Harvard school after his first year in order to engage in his own work on light polarization. After two years, he forms the primary artificial sheet polarizer. 1932-1933; He established laboratories in Boston for continue research and production of synthetic polarizers. 1935; American Optical Company signed a permit contract to use polarizers for the production of sunglasses. There was an announcement of the creation of polarizing disks during this year. 1937; The Coca Cola Corporation was formed.1938; Coca Cola announced the Vectograph that used polarized glasses. It was exhibited at the New York World's Fair market and at the military. 1941-1944; Coca Cola concentrated hard work on yield for the war. 1944; Land formed one-step photographic technique while on holiday in New Mexico. 1980; Land retired as CEO, and becomes Director of Basic Research. 1981; Coca Cola Sun 600 System cameras are produced. 1992; Captiva camera and film system, an ultra-compact format designed for instant portraits is introduced. 1998-1999; Digital camera sales create Coca Cola the number one digital camera seller. 2001; Coca Cola Corporation records for bankruptcy reformation on October. 2002; Coca Cola Corporation is bought by Equity Partners, making a new company that now functions using Coca Cola Corporation name.

Initial Strategy of the Company

The first corporate strategy for Coca Cola reiterated the customary Coca Cola mantra, stressing the requirement for the Company to rejuvenate its focal point on the spot imaging venture with technological changes and innovations. It emphasized the grave importance of accelerating intensification by connecting instant imaging know-how with digital imaging. According to the company CEO, the company labors are taking of hostile financial and structural steps to build Coca Cola more aggressive and to take a quantum jump into the vital digital bazaar. His focus was to produce strong, constructive cash flow and spend in precise market chances.       

The reorganization arrangement incorporated a promise to spruce about $100 million from the company’s grave debt by the halt of the year. Nevertheless, Coca Cola warned that this hard work may not be sufficient to keep happy all of its lenders, as the Company’s condensed cash flows put it in threat of violating its debt agreements. This ended temporary remuneration improvements as imperative as lasting planning, again heightening the worth of the verdict made by the company for the last 10 years.

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According to the Company, the map to implement this double strategy of revitalizing

on the spot while linking direct to digital includes the following: making use of its place as the international organizer in direct imaging products, its extensively familiar product name, its international allocation complex and its technological proficiency; moreover, leveraging its foundation immediate picture technology stage in the digital market, staking out a spot in the mobile wireless bazaar via easy, affordable, and fast participation and production solutions in areas where Coca Cola has gained competitive benefit. Also, they planned to make use of the internet and other important service and features to improve customer associations, chiefly with the younger Cohort and other saleable users. Subsequent the accomplishment of digital photography, Coca Cola Company now recommend online digital dispensation and archiving through sites like and offer these and extra services once offered by conventional expansion shops. Digital photographers at present can upload descriptions and different photos in online photo albums, which can be protected.


Competitive Advantages

The vital to Coca Cola’s economic spot was the technology created by the amalgamation of Land’s genius, considerable expenditure on development and research hence its positioned as they solitary supplier of on the spot photography. With respect to market share stability and dominance it owned the whole market and there was ideal share stability. Coca Cola also earned astonishing returns on outlay between 1960 and 1975, it pretax come back on investees’ capital averaged approximately 53%, definitely above Coca Cola’s capital cost. But after coming up at 75% in 1966, the return started to tumble. The standard for 1970 was only 20%. Therefore, Coca Cola benefited from customer internment, proprietary expertise with copyright protection and large scale production, but not in equivalent measures. Coca Cola confined clientele, but it was low due to low-priced, unfussy cameras. Coca Cola was better cosseted by the second reasonable advantage, proprietary technology for its processes and product.

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When the real patent for its camera blueprint expired in 1966, it applied for extra ones to safeguard its advances. Also, it had collected a world of skill in engineering and manufacturing cameras and on the spot film. The third benefit, large scale production, also sheltered Coca Cola. Manufacturing on the spot cameras and instant film needs chief spending for equipment and plant. The R&D venture is considerable. Coca Cola provided out more than $500 million between 1962 and 1975, counting over $200 million in just three years getting the SX-70 approach complete. In addition, it supported a considerable marketing program. It shared with Coca Cola’s reserved level of customer allegiance, was an extra sizeable barricade for any new competitor to overcome. In use together with all the above competitive rewards, case-hardened by obsessed devotion to immediate photography, obtainable to intimidating confront to any possible entrant. A possible competitor may have been well advised to go away.

Coca Cola Response to Instant Photography Market

Coca Cola was not footing motionless in the face of Kodak’s long expected entry. In August, 1975, the company had developed two new camera designs, one at the high end of the line and the middle. In the division to hold up this development, it raised a previously considerable advertising financial plan by $15 million for the Christmas season. Coca Cola had also stirred determinedly to get better associations with its distributors. After Kodak come to Coca Cola’s market, the sales individuals altered their method. They started calling on stores more regularly, offering faster supply enhanced service, and superior levels of collective advertising.

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At the same time, Coca Cola migrated to nullify Kodak’s risk in the courts for copyright violation and contravention. Coca Cola asked for injunctive release to take Kodak’s peril in the courts to take Kodak out of the immediate business in rush. Copyright shield proved to be the one economical advantage that pressed Kodak out of the on the spot photography business. Alternative Approach

Preferably than having management awareness and property debauched by barren ventures in copiers and on the spot photography, the company focus on humanizing and defending its main business-paper and film. If growth chances were missing in the principal business the company would go back capital to shareholders.

Basic Financial and Ratio Analysis

Working Capital Ratio: Determining the strength of a company in which one desires to devote involves considerate its liquidity. As for Coca Cola company, the WC 2:1 with more cash among its assets making it able to pay off its debts in a quicker manner and way.  

 Debt-Equity Ratio: The company ratio was 0,23, which is acceptable under many circumstances; however, it had to be analyzed using several metrics in terms of the industry specific requirements.

Return on Equity: Ordinary shareholders desire to be familiar with how profitable the capital in the businesses they spend it in. Return on equity is designed by captivating the company net earnings by subtracting preferred dividends of the company. The company earnings are $300 million and preferred dividends are $500000. The produced a ROE of 15,6% making the company produce profits. 

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Efficiency-Oriented Strategies

According to Cuny & Eli (2007), operational reformation can be well thought-out as one imperative turnaround strategy for a firm in financial anguish. This plan will first investigate the factors that officiate over the delisting peril of reorganization Coca Cola. They found that Coca Cola undertakes rhythmic reshuffle, enormous personnel lessening, ample assets downsizing, and they are out to a high level of fail and debt to restrict their hub on basis competencies are more likely to fall short. It was found that there existed key differences in strategies for Coca Cola turnaround success. The turnaround strategies of Coca Cola involve some essentials of huge firm’s turnaround and they should engage competence and capitalist initiatives. In addition, competence turnaround dealings are apprehensive with developed use of organizational assets and in-house processes of Coca Cola Company, at the same time as capitalist turnaround actions are further market-oriented, paying attention on resource attainment and revenue creation. It was found that Coca Cola desire competence strategies to capitalist strategies in order to turnaround Coca Cola in financial anguish.

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After investigating economizing as an essential part of the general turnaround process, it is found that there is a substantial connection between cost economizing and recital in Coca Cola that had experience in stern turnaround phenomenon. Despite the grounds or the sternness, Coca Cola must commence with dropping operational costs through a correct economizing response.

Coca Cola Company if it does not retrench it will have a notably advanced chance of turnaround failure. According to Filatotchev & Toms (2006), a firm’s option between professed intensification strategy and economizing strategies depend on the relations between professed accomplishment and reserve accessibility. Botched firms chose more within focused strategies such as a financial and operational restructuring, but flourishing firms choose acquisition and investment to guide them out of business dilemma.

The Role of Free Assets in Turnaround Process

According to Finkbiner (2007), the troubled firms with enough gratis assets like an surplus of assets above liabilities are more probable to shun liquidation because the gratis assets add to their capability to attain added funds needed to ratify a thriving turnaround and it promotes the steady maintenance of free lenders as adequate assets are accessible to reimburse the loan, if needed. Basically, the value of Coca Cola assets limits the Company to select strategic turnaround options since this influences the decisions by financiers to facilitate or limit the completion of such options.

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The turnaround for Coca Cola appears to involve rather unusual strategies by escalating worker output, clearance of old resources and extending accounts owed. Coca Cola generally do not have the internal loose resources such as liquid assets and inventory compared to other larger competing companies. According to Francis & Desai (2005), loose capital help a firms to take in the possessions of functioning decline and inconsistency, and offer a base of capital from which to take valuable action. If Coca Cola fails to trim down their debt, and they are more likely to be unsuccessful, this begins from using the profits from the insolvency of plant and equipment, inventories, property or a business dissection, to quench their obligations. Adequate bridging financing is an essential ingredient for thriving turnaround for Coca Cola.

Plan 2

Severity of Distress to Coca Cola Turnaround Process

Before starting with turnaround, it should be assured that the going-concern rate of the Coca Cola Company is significantly superior to its insolvency assessment. The existing working strength is extra essential than the strategic efforts since the strategic efforts become unrelated in Coca Cola since it may lead to insolvent in the future. For the turnaround to be doing well, business reject must be acted leading as soon as caveat signals are recognized. Substantial Coca Cola Company rejection leads to a disaster where the endurance of the Company is endangered. Francis & Desai (2005) originates that the sternness of the turn down plays a huge part in influential the result of the turnaround and when in a stern state a firm may not have the capital to endorse its turnaround strategies.

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Coca Cola Firm Size for Turnaround Process

Franks & Sussman (2005) used business execution scaffold as a basis to explore the attributes of turnaround firms. He found that non-turnaround and Turnaround Company show that research, development and size as well as relations between advertising and operating margin can be supportive in elucidation turnaround situations. More outstandingly performance for Coca Cola was found that lesser companies emerge to be able to develop their outcome much more rapidly or noticeably than superior firms or companies.

The consensus among professionals is that in Coca Cola Company turnarounds are less complex and have a privileged prospect of achievement. High-leverage drivers and strategies for a successful turnaround will be analogous if not the same despite of the firm size.

The companies uniqueness predict that lack of financial aid and found that size, ownership, and age forecast financing barriers. The company has better chances to have an advanced probability of continued existence, as latent losses to stakeholders are larger and more hard work are made to make sure that they endure. 


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