Two texts, "the Map Unfolds" by Joel Makower and "A View of Geography" by Yi-Fu Tuan discuss the issue of geography and formation of modern day science of maps. Still, both texts propose unique views and aspects of geography concentrating on universal questions that worry humanity. Thesis The geographical variables discussed in the texts have in common emphasis on an internal (structurally mature) mode of control and valuation contrasted with an external (structurally immature) mode.
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The main similarity of these texts is that they interpret the world as a structured system ordered and transformed by humans. Joel Makower vividly portrays that earlier geographers divided the world into parts and regions transforming its unity and wholeness.
Many travelers are themselves significant for local identity. In efforts to describe what was different about old maps, people would often point to the long distances. Many lands were isolated from the hinterland by rough terrain, its location on the coast allowed for greater contact with the outside world than was true of many inland regions. Similar to Makower, Yi-Fu Tuan states that geography underwent changes based on technologies and innovations. These are the general patterns expected from the geographical identity. Diffusions should be the least internalized; having no firm identity, they are defined by their circumstances. Foreclosures may appear to be more internalized; however, their internalization is based upon introjected, unreconstructed figures, and reflects sophisticated syntheses of early identifications--life issues have not been reformulated in the individual's own terms.
Both authors place a man in the center of all changes and transformation affected the science of geography. Makower underlines that: "experimenting with the new science of photogrammetry - the ability to take measurement from photographs - they succeed" (Makower 68). This approach changed geography forever. Both Makower and Yi-Fu Tuan state that local ties have always been important in geography. The geographical and cultural differences between different regions are stark and often became the basis for rivalries, jealousies, and factionalism. It was traditionally accepted by the state that each locality had its own customs. Indeed, one dimension was to have a native place origin from somewhere. These ties were important to people when they left home for family, religious, commercial, or governmental reasons. Native place ties were the basis for the organization of merchant guilds and native place associations around the empire and were of great significance in shaping the development of urban economies. Some scholars have suggested that the institutionalization of local solidarities produced more open and yet integrated civic order.
In sum, Makower and Yi-Fu Tuan propose a human-centered approach in geography underlining a crucial role of technology and human development in world division.
This approach to geography and world order is institutionalized in the examination system and a centralized authority. There is a relatively low degree of penetration into local society that left space for considerable autonomy and variation. Although failure to enforce the Earth wholeness and control local communities is seen as leading to chaos, a high degree of variation was expected within an overarching unity.
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