According to classical Buddhism, Buddha was seen to be an ascetic teacher and not a divine entity, he was therefore represented symbolically. However, later years saw Buddha being elevated to a deity and having a human representation. Although he did not encourage idol worship, his image was created and acted as an object of worship. This piece of art had unique beauty, proportion and regional character. Siddhartha Gautama was born as a prince near the border of Nepal and India. Despite this, it is believed that he renounced the kingdom, wife and child to pursue being an ascetic. It is later that he became the first Buddha as well as the founder of Buddhism in Northern India. Due to the fact that Prince Siddhartha kept on practicing an ascetic life, he became weak due to starvation, that is why the image has his cheeks wrinkled, and ribs visible. The sculpture of the Prince was from white marble.
This magnificent piece of art also known as the Gandharan Marble of Prince Siddhartha goes back to about the second century C.E. it is alleged to be from the region of Peshawar, and stands at approximately H. 58cm. It was the 6th century B.C, which was a period depicting spiritual and intellectual excitement, in addition to development in politics and commerce. His sculpture is a unique form of art which is incomparable and somehow difficult to place. This is because the sculpture represents a period that had received a lot of absorption and diffusion in culture. There were influences from India, Persia, Mediterranean and Persia. The prince undertook a sacred path, travelling as well as preaching with the aim of relieving human suffering.
In Hindu divinity, they worship gods that represent power in nature. Some came to believe that these divinities appear in one form called the Brahman. The most important ones are Shiva, who is its destroyer, and Vishnu, its preserver. The sculpture that represents the marriage of Shiva and Parvati is believed to have been found in western Rajathan, during late tenth century. The marriage of Shiva and Parvati, as depicted in the magnificent sculpture, symbolizes the power of conjugal happiness. The sculpture comes from the time when Tantric traditions and cultural practices pervaded the Hindu ideas. Tantric beliefs kept in mind the idea that male and female were interdependent, hence the two are to come together so as to show a state of spirituality and bring a ritual to fruition. In the sculpture, Shiva seems to be dependent on Parvati.
In this sculpture, the two are placed close together to show and emphasize their union. Their image together seems to be charged with hope and the promise of a fulfilling relationship between marriages. Because Shiva and Parvati were gods, their happiness ushers in an age of peace and prosperity. The god who van is violent has used his powers to be happy. The additions of other creatures like the cobra shows the sexual magnetism involved in their situation.
During the era around fourth and sixth centuries AD, there was a widespread emergence of images as a result of the spread of Hinduism. These various forms of art and sculptures represent different dimensions of the earliest Hindu art and sculpture. There was an importance in linking dance, literature, drama and art as an aesthetic expression in Hinduism. There was a unique fusion of art that were represented in temples in parts of India.
In conclusion, Nepalese art depict the daily practice of their religion. They represent among a number of other things, Hinduism and Buddhism. Indian art goes back to as early as the end of the second and third millennium BC. When compared to other sculptures from north India in mediaeval times, the sculpture depicting marriage of Shiva and Parvati probably dates back to the second half of the tenth century. It originated from Uttar Pradesh otherwise known as eastern Rajasthan. This represents a region that witnessed a lot of temple building between the ninth and eleventh centuries.