1. Definition of Time Management Skills
There is no consensus on the definition of time management skills in the previous researches. Lakein (1973) proposed that time management skills implies the process of identifying needs, determining goals to meet these needs, and prioritizing and planning of a task is necessary to achieve these objectives. Many authors suggest Time Management definition in their own way. Thus, time management skills refers to as a systematic procedure for the optimum time use, especially creating the sufficient time to perform many required tasks; the techniques for managing time; a technique for gaining awareness of time use; planning and allocating time. In other words, it is a technique to increase the time availability to pursue activities and intents to maximize the intellectual productivity. (Lakein 1973)
2. Definition of Delegating Skills
Delegation is the accountability and responsibility for outcomes or achievements to an organization or an individual. Delegation can be permanent or temporary. Delegation is not simply assigning tasks or jobs to be carried. Usually, a delegated job takes a shorter time framework to complete. It does not entail people what to be done, rather it necessitates explaining the results and outcomes they should achieve. (Andrew 1997)
3. Explain the Role of Managers
A manager will be successful in his mission if he has the quality of unselfish leadership. The managers play a leading role in all operations, by establishing the trends from the lower rang, representing themselves as a guiding spirit and a role model for their employees. Their duty consists in developing the policies which require the effective time management in the organization and to act upon and define the core values connected with the performance. (Mullins 2010)
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Time Management plays a vital role in achieving the business goals, and managers take this aspect seriously in their work for maximizing the employee’s productivity and satisfaction (Drucker 1967). For the efficient management, managers should develop a high culture of work in the organization by communicating the mission and values to its employees and stakeholders of the company; defining work requirements and effective communication with everyone for achieving a success in business goals and ensuring the improvement in the overall performance. Managers must update their subordinates about their efforts in achieving the goals and recommending the correct measures for non achievements. Managers also create a belief among employees about the importance of improvement by continuous learning in the productivity. (Time Management 2005)
4. Importance of Time Management
Winstanley D. said, “Time-management means controlling the utilization of time and deciding sensibly to extract maximum output in given time”. Successful managers give a significant importance to the effective time management. They consider without practicing the effective Time Management it is impossible accomplishing the mission and objectives of their organization.
The importance of the effective time management skills for a manager in discharging responsibilities are as under:
4.1 Time Management allows prioritize of work
Proper time management scheduling of tasks is effective, and it provides a lot of stress reliefs and sufficient time to implement priorities. Completing a job in the stipulated time can be a stressful activity. The majority of managers lose a lot of time for thinking and planning. Too often, unplanned tasks consume much time that becomes a part of routine work, and then managers lose the priorities on other kinds of activity. Nevertheless, the cause is all due to improper time management. These problems could cause a lot of stresses. Hence, managers should recognize that the labor productivity does not simply mean doing several tasks. They need to have wisdom in balancing these activities and ensure that they discharge their responsibilities effectively. In the event, of so many tasks at hand, there is a likelihood of failure in meeting the deadline or if there is a planning of multiple jobs at the same time. It can lead to a reduction in the productivity and wastage of time. Its remedy is time management that can prevent such events from occurring. For example, BMW managers use effective Time Management in its enhanced strategic production planning process when production commences. In this process, the production stretches to 12 months, divided into monthly periods, so that it comprises the complete life cycle of the vehicles. (Amos 1998)
4.2 Time Management Helps to Achieve Big Goals
To achieve success in career a key task is to set goals. All goals should be mapped onto a timeline. This timeline has to be managed. Any goal without a proper timeline is as strong as a moving goal post. It takes time to achieve success in career. Therefore, managers need to understand the significance of Time Management as their success in career reckons on these small steps across time. If Managers care for seconds, neither the minutes and hours will not waste, not will be days. All this can pile up into poor performance. The significance of time management is to realize that with small steps across time it is possible to accomplish ambitious goals, and achieving a goal has always been significant in Time Management. Bigger projects need completion in certain fixed time, and here efficient Time Management comes into practice. All managers from coordinating departments need better cooperation for timely completion of work, for example, In September 2003, Denver International Airport’s (DIA) begin operations much before of its completion deadline. (Williams 2007)
4.3 Efficiency of Work Relates To Time
Efficient at work concerns to managing time effectively. Ideal use of time helps managers to complete more tasks in least possible time. Effective time management provides faster completion of tasks and it is possible to handle many valuable tasks in the future. With better Time management, it is possible to become a competitive advantage to the company as well as over colleagues. This brings better performance score, more respect and trust from management and colleagues. The aspect of time management should always be kept in mind so that it is possible to climb higher in the corporate ladder. (Donna 2004)
Works accumulates due to ineffective, inefficient and poor time management skills. Then it results in chasing own tail; backlogged work mixes with current work while future projects also requires attention, these accumulated work built pressure. Before comes a stage of realization, stress of backlogging start affecting the health and degrading the quality of work and it is all because of lack of time management skills that have caused this stress. For example, A. K Taneja, career growth from Management Trainee to President of “Shriram Pistons and Rings Ltd” India, one the India’s leading group in Automobile sector, is the best example of efficient Time Management for a successful career. (Heather 2005)
4.4 Time management brings more productivity
Many companies offer time management training to their employees to increase productivity and performance. Managers can motivate subordinates to restrict the unnecessary activities in the work environment by managing time effectively. When there is less time wasting activity, employees can concentrate more on tasks and finish tasks on time. Usually timescales and milestones are measuring tools in a work setting, which defines necessary time for the performance of some tasks. These time standards measure actual employee’s productivity. Productivity of employees depends on the allocated level of a task. If workers are lazy and occupy in additional activities, they demand additional time. If the employees know Time Management and do not misuse the time allocated to them, they will be more productive. In this way, time management brings productive performance in an organization. Toyota offers Time Management programs to its employees. Employees go through practical training of Time Management in various departments and learn how to complete job in an allotted time. (Davidson 2010)
5. Importance of Delegation Skills
A manager cannot carry out all operations assigned to him. For achieving goals, manager should possess delegation skills. Delegating skills enable the manager to divide his powers and entrust the work responsibility to his subordinates. Delegation is all about entrusting subordinates to perform some parts of his total task. Thus, delegation is the sub-allocation and subdivision of powers to subordinates in order to achieve the desired results. (Burns 2002)
Delegation is a powerful, systematic process in all management operations. At times, the task of any manager goes beyond his capacity, or he has multiple tasks in a given time framework, so there should be a suitable system to support his activity. That is why management considers delegation skill is as a powerful tool in the organizational functioning. Delegation skills also support managers in multiplying themselves by multiplying their tasks with their subordinates. (Heller 1998)
The importance of delegation in the organization can be justified by the following:
5.1 Help in work load reduction
Delegation helps the manager to divide the tasks and allocate them to his subordinates. This assists in the work load reduction and he can concentrate on the key areas of management such as the strategy formulation and implementation, planning, market analysis and goals achievement.
5.2 Prioritize of work
With the minimization of work load on the manager, he can divert his energy on critical issues that need the immediate solution. By this, he brings the efficiency to his work, thereby streamlining all operations of the organization. This tool helps the manager to prove his skills and ability in the best manner.
5.3 Creates Close and Healthy Relationship with Subordinates
Delegations are the platform on which management subordinate relationship rests. In the organizational functioning, the authority moves from the top level to the very bottom. It is true that the organization cannot facilitate functions without a support of the bottom workers. This fact proves that, through delegation skill of a manager, the management-worker relationship becomes stronger. The authority flowing from the top to bottom is the effective method to attain desired results. (Donna 2004)
5.4 Improves Subordinates Skills and Abilities
Effective delegation skills of managers provide enough space to subordinates to prove their skills and abilities. Through delegation, subordinates receive a feeling of importance. This motivates them to work efficiently, and, thus, motivation yields satisfactory results (Heller 1998). Job satisfaction is another crucial factor for ensuring the stability and reliability in the relationship between a manager and subordinates. Delegation also facilitates overcoming the monotony of workers so that they are more effective and creative. Delegation is not only useful to subordinates, but it also facilitates managers to develop their skills and talents. Through delegation, the manager improves time management on the critical issues helping him to shine his talent and strengthen a decision-making process. Effective and planned delegation ensures the satisfactory work done by subordinates and helps the manager to accomplish his communication skills. These skills provide an effective motivation and improve the leadership qualities of a manager; thus, he leads his team to success. In other words, delegation skills are test bench of manager traits. Toyota sales managers achieve ambitious sales targets by a highly pushing team and successful delegation of tasks to team force. Manager delegation skills provide an opportunity to team force proving their ability and skills. (Andrew 1997)
5.5 Expenses of Business Activities
Delegating jobs are also beneficial for management, brings the stability in the organization. With effective results, management can think of creating more departments to expand their business activities. The organization can expand its operations by hiring more managers and shifting skilled and experienced managers to higher positions. This will promote both the horizontal as well as virtual growth necessary for the organization’s stability. BMW’s board of management possesses excellent delegation skills in its two tier corporate governance. BMW top management delegate jobs to its supervisory board. This supervisory board is further responsible for setting up committees for internal and external auditing, quality assurance departments, the research and development division and risk management division. (Maddux 1998)
Thus, from the above points, we observe that the delegation skill is not simply a process, but it is the technique which helps the manager to multiply himself and provide stability and soundness to his organization (Roebuck 1999).
The analysis and evaluation of Time Management and Delegation of Authority shows that both go hand in hand. The management cannot function efficiently without the appropriate time management. It is extremely essential for managers to implement various tools of time management and delegation skills for the high productivity and effective performance.
Delegation helps to distribute time accurately. There are the significant advantages as well as drawbacks in delegating the authority. Therefore, it becomes necessary for managers to be cautious while delegating their powers to subordinates. Managers should analyze forming a high perspective, the ability and skills of subordinates to handle the delegated task. It is essential for managers to draw a comprehensive plan of tasks to be handled by subordinates, describing a strategy in short to meet the objectives and for deriving the maximum advantages from the delegation of authority and powers. Since all subordinates are not capable of discharging each and every job, the selection criteria will help managers in allocating the tasks. The basic thumb rule says that it is essential to allocate those jobs to subordinates according to their ability and skills in the given frame work of time. (Heller 1998)
Time Management has become tremendously valuable in project management. The certain projects need an accurate planning of tasks to be completed in a fixed time. Thus, managers should be cautious while planning time management and delegating the powers and authority. Even the occurrence of a small lapse can result into harmful consequences to the manager as well as to the organization. Time cannot be stored. Hence, it is essential for managers to understand the value and the effective utilization of time. We conclude that successful managers are those that have the technique of the effective time management and possess wisdom for delegating their powers and authority. (Mayer 1999)
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