1. What group of people was originally associated with funk in Rio, and how are they represented in the media?
According to Yudice, the Brazilian youths were the first group in Brazil to put aside their economic differences as well as their racial democracy and universally identified themselves with a particular music genre, that is funk music. This was seen among the youth working in Rio de Janeiro who stood out of nation sanguine to settle on a music choice that was not common in Brazil at that time. Funk at that mainly consisted of a number of black genres mainly associated with the United States. The genres included; rhythm, soul, blues, hip-hop and Motown. (Yudice 123). Funk was mostly sung in English thus most of the Brazilians were unable to comprehend thus were unable to get its linguistic sense. This led to this music genre to fall out with the media as it did not receive air play in most of the radio stations. The situation in the market was not different as most stores refused to include this type of music in their shelves mostly because it was popular among the elderly.
2. How does Yudice compare samba and funk in relation to changing ideas about racial and class identity in Brazil?
Those Brazilians who chose to listen to funk were associated with an infinitely voluminous form of music that even included the traditional Brazilian genre such as samba. Due to the variety associated with these music, it was easy for them to be used to attract a good number of youth who came together and used the music as away of coming up with creativity through dancing and singing changing the citizens notions towards the youth. The move was aimed at bringing together the fragmented constituencies. Funk has been transformed to serve not just as an entertainer form of music but as a platform used by the youth to reach out to the communities and societies. By doing so, the music culture was used to better both the social and economic levels of the youth by addressing their issues to the state through the music. This was a different trend as compared to the traditional samba that was mainly used for entertainment and fun (Yudice 89).
3. Yudice explains how “carioca” funk is viewed by many as “apolitical” music. What is his argument about it? What are your thoughts on the topic?
According to Yudice, most people viewed funk music as a wrong choice of music which was out to accomplish political ambitions. He goes on to argue that music was traditional associated with both politics and culture yet culture always ended up gaining an age over the rest. In the same case, music remained a central point when it came to activities related to cultural politics making the Brazilian youths to be disaffected towards the history that gave rise to the modern societies that are filled with political ambition. The way funk was used to preach the cry of the youth made it regarded as a political music. Such activities by the youth were seen as to be encroaching on the nation’s civil structure thus affecting the public discourse towards its own society. It led to many people buying the idea of public sphere reconstitution so as to achieve some sense in the progress of the nation (Yudice 103).
Music should not just be used for entertainment purposes only but also as a means of reaching out to the public while addressing key issues affecting out societies. Music is one of the best means of doing so as most people listen to music thus the message will be conveyed to a good number of citizens in the comfort of their living rooms. This should not be viewed as a political move but an educative one. Through music, important issues facing our societies have been addressed include racism and poverty. Though many politicians have been associated with such topics, the way they are conveyed through music is in away that it doesn’t condemn nor shift blame but educate.
4. How does funk in Rio “go against the grain of national and regional cultural identity”?
Funk was viewed by many especially the elderly as to be using its politics of culture to cause citizenship and consumption convergence. This is explained through the corporation politics like working assets that were viewed as being wanting (Yudice 167). The management of the corporate diversity also came under criticism as being a means of protecting business from racism charges and its negligence when it came to economic and social inequality as well as racism entrenchment. The messages and movements associated with funk were viewed as attempts to achieve social justice through fighting the nation’s economic and social systems. This was traditionally unacceptable in Brazil culture as the social practices stayed away from political and economic issues of the nation as they were regarded as not being equally serous. Such movements were taken as to be leading to consumerism yet in the long run resulted in excess pressure on the labor global economy and resources exploitation. The Brazil culture called for nation issues on the economy and politics to be addressed by politicians and government officials and in a formal manner.
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5. According to Yudice, how does funk culture allow poor youth in Rio to “clear a space of their own”?
The activities and practices of funk music in the Brazilian led to a mobile Brazilian society thus lifting its social structure discourse. Funk music with the help of a number of NGO’s helped the youth come up with activities that enabled them to reconstitute the position they occupied. The youth had been denied the freedom of expression thus they had to create it and they did so through singing and dancing to funk music. Such movements empowered the youth to become creative citizens who addressed issues on their own way rather than depending on other people to be their spokesmen. They used music to reach out and educate the society as well as speak out the issues facing them. They also used music to sale out their ideas of a better society and better life for the youth (Yudice 180).