The meaning of the term “west” has significantly changed due to cultural experiences with various ideas and beliefs both from within and outside. The work taken for the research is, “The West: Encounters & Transformations, 2nd Edition. Volume 2” by Brian P. Levack, Edward Muir, and Meredith Veldman. Brian P. Levack is a PH.D holder from the University of Yale and is a History Professor at University of Texas, Austin. Levack provides an analysis of various European history subjects. Edward Muir is also a PH. D holder from Rutgers University, his specialty being Renaissance in Italy. Muir is a Professor in Sciences and Arts at Northwestern University. Meredith Veldman received a Ph.D certificate at Northwestern University and works as a Professor in the field of contemporary European history. The book does not just focus on the history of Europe, but also scrutinizes how the “west” has transformed over time. History has also been examined from a view of all significant perspectives, which include; social, cultural, religious, and political. The grounds explaining the rise of Islam are quite complex, but the most significant rationale is that Islam is a medium for Arab dominance.
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Islam appeared as a new religion in the 7th century in the Arabian Peninsula western deserts. Islam had no Jewish or Christian origin though it incorporates beliefs and ideologies similar to these two religions. The initial purpose of Islam was intended to affect the entire globe. The founder of Islam is Muhammad, who was an Arabian businessman from the town of Mecca. Before Islam had been born, Christianity had dominated most of the Mediterranean part, and its ideologies were spreading to other regions of the world via trade routes. Goods and ideas from the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean flowed through Mecca. Therefore, Islam was majorly influenced by the Jewish and Christian ideologies For instance, Muhammad asserted that he received significant messages from angel Gabriel. This is similar to Christian and Jewish stories which also mention angel Gabriel giving important messages to God’s people.
In the beginning, Pagan Arabs were interested in the Christian and Jewish ideologies. Later on, Muhammad started abusing them claiming that they will be destroyed in hell for devoting themselves to false deities. Pagan Arabs enraged and scorned Muhammad and his followers. In 622 AD, Muhammad and his followers ran away from Mecca and settled in Medina, where they were warmly received by the Jewish community that had settled there. Following the new foundation in Medina, Muhammad, organized the attacks on merchant caravans belonging to Pagan Arabs being well guarded by armed combatants. However, in 624 AD Muhammad’s crew raided the merchant caravans and defeated the soldiers. Many Pagan Arabs were captured, and this was the first main combat in which Muslims conquered Arabia. The following years saw Muhammad expanding the Median territory and going to war several times with the Pagans and Jewish people. Muhammad gained power and influence, and his association with the Jewish tribes settled in Median began to fall apart. Muhammad responded by forcing the first two tribes out of Medina and butchering the remaining clan. Muhammad became the conqueror of Mecca in 630 AD sending out his army to take control over remaining Pagan Arabs. Muhammad went ahead and got rid of Pagan Temples and declined to their retreat until they accepted to follow his newfound religion.
In 623 AD, Muhammad passed away, and his religion was led by a number of Muhammad’s allies whose goal was to continue Muhammad’s ideology. Among the top Muslim leaders was Abu Bakr who was the father of one of Muhammad’s wives. Abu Bakr was amid the first being converted to the Islam religion. After Muhammad’s death, a group of Arab rebels began to criticize Islam. Abu Bakr made an attempt to restrain them. Nonetheless, Abu Bakr passed away in 634 AD, and another top Muslim leader known as Umar took his place. The reign of Umar saw the entire Middle East conquered.
The most uprising thing about Muhammad’s allies, who assisted him in conquering Arabia, is that they never declared Muhammad’s name or even Islam on anything. Some have argued that this was a way of sustaining economic firmness in the subjugated Arab regions. All in all, the rise of Islam was a complex and amazing episode of history. It is clear that in only one century after Muhammad had unraveled his new religion, Islam, through the use of armed forces, had taken control over the entire Arabia. Muslims managed to conquer all the way up to Spain and even the Far East, for instance, Afghanistan. The territories under the Islamic rule became the greatest empire that has taken control of some of the major cores of civilization. Even the Pagan Arabs had no choice but to convert to Islam. There is no doubt that Muhammad’s dominance in Arabia was founded on the Islamic religion.
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