Metternich described Italy as a mere geographical expression because, before 1860, Italy was not a unified state (McKay, 2011). Italy had different sovereign states that the kings, who had an association with foreign nations, such as Austria and France, administered and governed. It was after 1860 when many Italians preferred unification as various leaders, including Mazzini, made attempts towards unifying Italy (McKay, 2011). The basic approaches of Italian unification include the use of a centralized democratic republic, federation of Italian states under the influence of a pope, and Sardinia-Piedmont’s independent kingdom to rule Italy (McKay, 2011). Sardinia-Piedmont’s independent kingdom was the basic approach that prevailed because it was more feasible than was the case with the other approaches (McKay, 2011). The centralized democratic republic appeared to be extremely radical and the federation of Italian states that the pope ruled seemed unlikely. Since 1860 it took Italy only one year to become one country, as all Italian states underwent unification (McKay, 2011).
As various events regarding unification took place in Italy, Germany also put a considerable effort for its own unification process. However, the unification process took several decades, which was not the case with the unification process in Italy (McKay, 2011). In Germany, Zollverein was one of the most significant agents that contributed to the unification of a large number of states. The Zollverein refers to the Germans, who aimed at destroying Austria and uniting Germany (McKay, 2011). Zollverein was extremely significant in the unification of Germany because it induced trade and ameliorated the member-states’ economies. This union could not benefit the Austria because of economical unfeasibility. Zollverein ensured that there was free trade, uniform tariff on every frontier, and equal subdivision of net proceeds within the entire population (McKay, 2011). The union embraced a common weights and measures system and ensured there are no more than two currency systems. A large number of Germany states desired to join the Zollverein because of its economic significance (McKay, 2011). Therefore, the Zollverein expedited the unification process culturally and economically rather than politically. The wars that enabled Germany to consolidate the national unity included Franco-Prussian War, Second War of Schleswig, and Austro-Prussian War (McKay, 2011). Three wars were against France, Denmark, and Austria respectively. Austro-Prussian War led to the end of Germany Confederation in 1866, which gave way for the North Germany Confederation. Germany became one nation in 1871 after struggling for a number of decades (McKay, 2011).
Socialist parties grew rapidly in Europe during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. In order to account for this phenomenon, it is necessary to consider history revisionism, which goes hand-in-hand with liberalism. Industrial revolution exerted a number of profound influences on the European civilization (McKay, 2011). Europe came to enlightenment more slowly as compared to the United States, which came to enlightenment within a short time. However, when Europe came to enlightenment, the United States got stuck in a conservative idiocy. A number of socialists in the last quarter of the nineteenth century failed to accept that the rich people deserved the wealth (McKay, 2011). This was because the unfortunate individuals worked for the rich extremely hard with little payment. The number of individuals in the working class increased as the working conditions and remunerations became favorable. Therefore, many people could access quality education just like the members of elite classes could. This was possible because of the suppression of various parties, such as the Paris Commune as the anarchist and Marxist factions came together. The growing number of individuals in the working class made profound changes in politics toward the end of the nineteenth century in Europe (McKay, 2011).