Biomaterials refer to the materials that serve as permanent implants, which are biocompatible, tissue compatible, corrosion resistant, elastic, and vital. Research has shown that titanium materials possess the requirements for biomaterials to a meaningful degree. However, cp-titanium and Ti6A14V are the only alloys of titanium that are suitable for orthopedic applications. These alloys of titanium are unlike other elements like Vanadium, which studies have found to be toxic when in oxides and elemental states. It has been evident through vitro studies that the debris, which Ti6A14V generate on wearing, stimulates phagocytes significantly. Besides, Ti6A14Vparticles invokes release of osteolytic and proinflammatory mediators from the bone marrow cells. β-alloys of titanium are exceptionally resistant to abrasion and wear, thereby suitable for implant applications in human beings. β-titanium has excellent warm and cold formability and wear resistance, which make it suitable for future usage in orthopedic replacement of joints.
Materials and Methods
Materials used for investigations included molybdenum, AISI 316 L steel, cp-titanium grade 2, tantalum, niobium, zirconium, and aluminum. The materials undergo conversion from metal rods to 2mm thick slices. These slices then undergo abrasion with the use of SiC and polishing with the use of aluminum oxide suspension. Then the slices undergo ultrasonic cleansing and SEM observes the slices’ surface condition. Vitro methods involved corrosion test of cp-titanium, molybdenum, aluminum, implant 316 L steel, zirconium, tantalum, and niobium take place in physiological sodium chloride solution. This was to determine the release of ions from the biomaterial to the surrounding tissues under the standard physiological conditions.
It was evident from the results that cp-titanium is a more biocompatible material than other elements, such as zirconium, molybdenum, 316 L, and aluminum, whose corrosion resistance reduced significantly. The comparisons took place based on the observations of the cells GM7373 and MC3T3-EI by virtue of cell proliferation, cell volume, mitochondrial activity, and cell morphology. The cell proliferation for MC3T3-EI reduced slightly on zirconium and aluminum, distinctly on molybdenum, and moderately on 316 L steel. Cell proliferation, cell volume, and mitochondrial activity are high and remain constant on cp-titanium. This is true both for the cells GM7373 and MC3T3-EI throughout the investigations. The morphological appearance both for GM7373 and MC3T3-EI cells is normal and healthy on titanium. This is not the case with the other elements, which exhibit unhealthy morphological appearances.
Biocompatibility studies were extremely significant in determining the effects of alloying elements on the cells of implant tissues. Supplementary examinations involved the corrosion of pure elements in vivo experimental conditions, which constituted physiological sodium chloride solution. The zirconium formed thermodynamically stable metal oxides that did not impair the functioning of the surrounding cells. Molybdenum and steel 316 L yielded corrosive products that damaged the surrounding cells significantly. Aluminum appears to undergo crack corrosion, which is evident from the pits that occur on the surface of aluminum slices. Titanium does not cause inflammatory reactions among macrophages and inflammatory cells. The viability of both MC3T3-EI and GM7373 cells is high when the cells are in contact with cp-titanium.
It has been evident that cp-titanium is a biomaterial because MC3T3-EI and GM7373 cells remain viable. Cell proliferation, cell volume, mitochondrial activity, and cell morphology of MC3T3-EI and GM7373 cells are normal on cp-titanium. This shows the biocompatibility of cp-titanium. The alloys of β-titanium materials, such as aluminum, molybdenum, 316 L steel, zirconium, and tantalum fail to be biocompatible because of a number of aspects.
Cp-titanium is the best choice for the permanent implants in human beings because of its viability with body cells. Various aspects, such as cell proliferation, cell volume, mitochondrial activity, and cell morphology are normal and healthy on cp-titanium. This is not the case with other elements like aluminum, molybdenum, 316 L steel, zirconium, and tantalum.