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Free «Autoimmune Disorders» Essay Sample

Introduction

An autoimmune disease is considered as one of the nastiest disorder which affects the body’s immune system. The normal immune system goes down losing the ability to identify its own cells and attack itself. The condition ends up as a demoralizing disease that affects all organs of the body and comes up in many forms. The study below considers autoimmune thyroid disease by considering such factors as symptoms, treatment and prevention.

Autoimmune thyroid disease

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Autoimmune thyroid disease arises from the infection of the thyroid glands by the immune system thus they function in an abnormal way. The glands are can either be under or over active; these glands are located in the front part of the neck. They are very common in women than men especially the Hashimoto’s thyroiditis which affects women between the age of 30 and 50 and it is sometimes considered to be genetic especially if it affects people of the same families (National institute of Health, 2010).

Causes

Hypothyroidism is the most common in women and it regularly result from the disfunctioning of the thyroid gland affected by medical services such as irradiation therapy, surgery. There are no records of any autoimmune disease being contagious neither are they related to cancer in any way thus they have never been said to have an outbreak. However they are sometimes said to be genetic because in some families they affect generation to the other.

The thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid glands caused by bacterial or viral infections. The thyrotoxicosis results from the overproduction of the thyroid hormones. The commonest form is inform of Grave’s disease which is mostly caused by immunological or generical factors. Thyroid cancer may also be caused by predisposing factors like prolonged radiation exposure especially in the young children, thyroid hormones stimulation, mostly through excess radiation and the chronical goitre (Learninginfo. Org., 2010).

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Common symptoms

The most common symptom of autoimmune disease is enlarged thyroid glands especially with the hypothyroidism and others like anorexia and fatigue and weight gain. The affected mostly wears a very dull face with pale, dry cold skin and hair and their nails become brittle. The symptoms of iodine deficiency are not common in the well developed nations because they have enough iodized salt. These include tracheal deviation, dyspnea and dysphagia; this is because the affected lacks enough iodine in the food or water consumed. Thyroiditis which is caused by bacterial or viral infection of the thyroid glands is identified by the enlargement and tenderness of the thyroid glands and fever especially at more complicated stages.

The most common symptoms of thyrotoxicosis include: heat intolerance, sweating, nervousness, flushed skin, diarrhea and amenorrhea especially in women and many others. These depend on the personalities of the individuals and the weaknesses of their genes. Tumours are identified by a single or many nodules in the neck combined by others like loss of voice, hoarseness and dysphagia (Kidshealth. Org, 2010)

Treatment

 
 
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The treatment of the immune thyroid disease is depended on the type, its severity and the accompanying signs and symptoms. Hyperthyroidism is treated by reduction of the levels of the excess hormones. In most cases, the patients of the autoimmune thyroid disease are treated using levothyrixine, LT4 is also recommended especially if the state of the disorder is not complicated and if the glands are not fully destroyed to destroy the thyroid glands. LT4 treatment keeps TSH low and at normal levels thus it is effective in cases needing reduction of the autoantibodies and sizes of goitre which are enlarged hence preventing the disorder from progressing to autoimmune hypothyroidism.


Genetic screening for thyroid disease

Screening of the generic thyroid and testing the antibodies is useful in determining the health animals and their fitness for breading. An animal with antithyroid antibodies are likely to pass them to the siblings through the body fluid like colostral milk. Thyroid screening is therefore necessary for a good breeding stock. In animals like the dogs, the screening for the thyroid disorder is done 12 to 16 weeks after the start of the preceding heat. For the young ones, between 15 to 18 months old are expected to have the baseline of the thyroid levels in the upper ½ to 1/3 of the ranges of the adults. For the best thyroid function when screening the bleeding stock, the levels should be within the normal ranges of the laboratory because levels below may indicate early levels of thyroidities in the relatives or families reported to have a case of the disorder (Learninginfo. Org., 2010).

Use of some type of DNA technology to prevent autoimmune thyroid diseases

The lymphocytes have functions in the analysis of the autoimmune thyroid diseases. The suppressor T lymphocytes are necessary to suppress the production of the antibodies although they are defective in the patients suffering from autoimmune thyroid diseases. The histocompatibility genes in the autoimmune disease do not well activate T lymphocytes when presenting antigen to them.

Multiple generic factors are assumed to an important role in most of the autoimmune thyroid diseases. Women are the most affected because of the genes related with the steroid action of sex or other actions related to the X-chromosomes genes (Learninginfo. Org., 2010).

Conclusion

Autoimmune thyroids diseases result from the unbalancing of the immune system hence affecting the thyroid glands. These complications are mostly identified by the enlargement of these glands accompanied by fever and other signs like fatigue. The disorders are mostly associated with women because of the many generic factors and other genes associated with sex like X-chromosomes.

   

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