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Free «Cancer screening among African Americans» Essay Sample

In the recent years cancer has become widespread illness, for which the researchers and pharmacologists try to find some cure, create new medicine. But, as the proverb says, it is better to find an illness and try to avoid it than cure.

The screening for the colorectal cancer (CRC) may be very useful, because it detects early stage of cancer, the stage where it can be still cured. One of the main researches in this field was made by Aimee S. James, Christine M. Daley and K. Allen Greiner. They have used different methods in their study.

First of all the method of study description was used. The researches have taken seven groups with people aged from forty five and older. There were two men groups, four women groups and a mixed group. All the groups were observed and examined by the doctors. From time to time, during a year, the participants of the groups were interviewed about their health state and mood. In such way the data were collected for the research.

The researches have used some methods of recruiting, mainly snowball and purposeful sampling, because they needed people of both genders and different kinds of cancer. To recruit people to participate in the research, the advertisements in the drugstores and hospitals were used; flyers were given to people in clinics. Those who were interested in the research provided the researches with their contacts and CRC screening status.



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The main procedure of collecting data was observing the patients and the interview with them. Each interview lasted from thirty minutes to an hour, besides all the interviews were taped and transcribed. After the interview the participants had also a small questionnaire about gender, age, insurance status, employment, educational level and other common questions, but also the researches were interested in personal and family history of cancer, colon cancer screening history and the opinion of the doctor. Besides, the participants were asked about CRC and cancer, to see how much they know about the disease.

In my opinion, the methods were used correct; and the researches have received the full image of the health of a participant, his or her thoughts and believe about cancer and CRC. There were used no unknown or not wide-spread methods; they were simple but efficient. As a result, the researchers had all the data to be able to make full analysis and complete the research.

This was the research about cancer, which has become widespread all over the world and thousands of people die because of it. Obviously, the participants did not want to be known all over the world as those who have cancer. That is why the researches audiotaped the interviews, transcribed them, the codebooks were created by the research team. Only the participants and researchers knew the names of each other, as well more private information. That is why the results of the research were not published; the article gives us only a brief overview on the topic and results.

As one may see, the methods used for research were reliable, because not only people’s words were taken into account, but also the cancer history of the family, the data received from the personal doctor. One may say that the validity of the research was proved by the results. In my opinion this research is one of the fullest researches in this field of study, and particularly in the CRC screening.

When the data was collected, the team of researchers began to work on encoding the transcription of the interview, transcribing the audio materials and comparing the data. In my opinion, such methods take a lot of time; it would be easier and better if they had one database. They would have put the computers, connected by the local network, in the rooms where the interviews are held, and while the interview, the researcher would write down the answers. This way time would not have been wasted. On the other hand, to prove the validity and reliability of the research the scientists should do the same procedure over and over again; different members of the team would interview the participants, to make sure they do not lie. Therefore, the methods of analyzing data are not so bad and boring as it may seem. Although, the methods of research and analysis, that were used, are not appropriate, in my opinion, they answered all the questions. The research was aimed to show the relations between age, family history of illnesses, social status of the participants and cancer. The researchers have tested the hypothesis and proved that there is dependence of person’s life and the diseases he or she has after fifty.

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Roughly one may divide all the data, used in the research, into qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative data are based on the gender, educational level of the participants, their employment and whether they have medical insurance or not. Quantitative data are based on the numerals, such as age, whether they have ever been tested (such tests as fecal occult blood test, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy), how many cases of cancer were there in the family history of illnesses. The main difference between those two is that is it easier for the researches to deal with quantitative data, although qualitative data are also very important, concerning the topic of the research.

In my opinion, this research was significant not only for doctors or scientists. The participants during the interview were also asked questions about their beliefs in facts about cancer. This researched helped not only the participants, but also ordinary people to understand the importance of CRC screening, to learn more, and probably, to find out, some mew factors of risk to get cancer. In my opinion, the main problem was that the participants know a lot about cancer, surely more than the average citizen knows, but they are not willing to talk about it, not willing to discuss. This can show the problem of our society: everybody knows about the problem, but nobody wants to speak about it. The weak point of this research could be also lack of the participants. There were approximately twenty participants, but this number is too small, to prove the hypothesis. The strengths of the research are that firstly, the participants found out something new about cancer and CRC screening; and, secondly, the researchers have taken the particular group of people, African Americans, and they have shown the connection between cancer and not only the way of our lives, but what illnesses our parents or grandparents had.

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As it was mentioned above, some methods of research were not efficient; the research was limited. Mainly it was limited by time and people who were involved in this study, but also the problem was the desire of African Americans to participate. It was obvious that this research will not take much time, but people were not willing to find something new. With the lack of participants and time, this research can show people that cancer is very serious disease and the earlier it is found; the easier it is to be cured; and the colorectal cancer screening may help to predict, and hopefully, avoid cancer.


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