Epidemiology refers to a special type of scientific study that explores various factors determining the distribution of various healthcare and infection within the human population; often factors considered herein include health, disease, and accidents (Foxman, 2012). Epidemiology offers local and national healthcare practitioners appropriate knowledge that is critical in studying both new and existing health problems.
Epidemiology has several objects. Some of these objectives include: to establish the cause and/or etiology of a particular disease; the second objective of epidemiology is to determine the scope of the disease in question. Thirdly, epidemiological studies are mostly designed to explore the development of a given disease (Foxman, 2012). The other objective of epidemiology is to design and develop health policies for the public consumption. Lastly, epidemiology is intended to assess measures that be employed to prevent and/or cure a particular disease or condition in question (Webb & Bain, 2010).
There are several subspecialties within epidemiology such as environmental epidemiology, infectious disease epidemiology, and cardiovascular disease epidemiology. Environmental epidemiology refers to scientific study of distribution of various epidemics, occurrence of various human diseases, the importance of preventing and treating diseases, and how healthcare can be evaluated (Olsen, et al., 2010). Being a branch of epidemiology, environmental epidemiology draws its premises from descriptive and analytical procedures. On the other hand, infectious disease epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology that studies the distribution of infectious diseases, their cases studies, syndromes, and entities of infectious diseases (Foxman, 2012). It encompasses definition, classification, susceptibility, laboratory analysis, and occurrence of infectious diseases among aspects.
The other subspecialty of epidemiology is descriptive epidemiology; these are varied studies that are intended to identify and explain patterns of various conditions that are linked to health and those that occur naturally in a population (Foxman, 2012). A typical example of descriptive epidemiology involves determining the number of children that have been immunized fro measles with a given community. Cardiovascular disease epidemiology is a scientific study that explores health issues that are concerned with atherosclerosis research; that is, the relationship between cholesterol and geographical location of a population (Olsen, et al., 2010).