Table of Contents
1. Orthostatic hypotension
Orthostatic hypotension is a kind of hypotension where the blood pressure in an individual suddenly falls while stretching or standing. This kind of symptom is caused when blood pools in the lower extremities as the body changes position (Bradley and Davis 2393–8). This complication is very common and can take place briefly in any person. However, it is particularly common amongst the elderly and the people with low blood pressure. It has been found to cause instant dizziness to people.
An individual with orthostatic hypotension exhibits symptoms of dizziness, euphoria, dissociation of the body, hearing distortions, nausea, headache, lightheadedness, blurred vision, generalized fainting, numbness and tingling, coat hanger pain normally between shoulders and the neck among other few signs. This normally happens after sudden standing or stretching, or basically after standing. Such are the consequence of insufficient pressure of blood and cerebral perfusion. There may be an occasional warm feeling in the shoulders and in the head for a moment after the dizziness ceases.
Orthostatic hypotension is caused by blood pooling, induced by gravity in the lower extremities (Bradley and Davis 2393–8). This, as a result, compromises the venous return leading to decreased cardiac output and successive arterial pressure lowering. Medication for orthostatic hypotension is done in severe cases. Some drugs used include erythropoietin and fludrocortisone (Florinef). They basically help in the retention of fluids and vasoconstrictors, such as midodrine.
Diuretics have been found to cause an increased electrolyte excretion like those of potassium, sodium and calcium as noticed in urine. As a result, the normal concentrations of electrolytes, such as potassium, go low that they cannot preserve the normal transmission of electrical signals in cardiac muscles (What are the Effects of Diuretics? par 6-9). This causes the weakening of cardiac muscles and, hence, the heart rhythms end up being abnormal.
3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm is a localized ballooning of the abdominal aorta past the usual diameter by a length more than half. The aorta dilates at the area of the aneurysm like a weak point on an aged tire. Most of the known aneurysms are asymptomatic. All the same, the symptoms linked to abdominal aortic aneurysms include pain and pulsating sensations around the abdomen. Other pains may be realized at the scrotum, lower back or in the chest. There is also a noticeable risk to rupture. Other complications include peripheral embolization, rupture and sharp aortic occlusion among others.
Interventions that are carried out on this complication include conservative management, immediate repair and surveillance with an intention of ultimate repair (Cina 66). The two common repair modes present include open aneurysm repair (OR) and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). These interventions are usually recommended in the case that the aneurysm enlarges more than a centimeter in a year or when it becomes more than 5.5 cm long. Again, repair is additionally advised for symptomatic aneurysms. There can also be a surgery. The threshold of repair is different, although slightly based on an individual’s risk balance and benefits when making considerations for repairs against ongoing surveillance. The size of a person’s native aorta could impact this, together with comorbidities presence that decrease life expectancy or increase operative risk.