Borderline personality disorder refers to pervasive condition of instability in emotions, interpersonal relationships, and self-image (Gunderson & Links, 2008). Most individuals with borderline personality disorder tend to be extremely impulsive. A person’s feelings and emotions may fluctuate quickly in various settings. Only people over eighteen years of age may undergo a diagnosis for borderline personality disorder. (Paris, 2008). Intensity of borderline personality disorder decreases with age. This discussion will consider the epidemiology, causes and symptoms, nature, diagnosis, and treatment of the borderline personality disorder.
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Borderline personality disorder is common among individuals, who have attained early adulthood stage. Research shows that slightly more females suffer from borderline personality disorder than males. Borderline personality disorder’s point prevalence in the United States is about 1.4 percent, while its life prevalence is about 5.9 percent. Studies have shown that borderline personality disorder is extremely common with the psychiatric in-patients (Galione & Zimmerman, 2010).
Causes and Symptoms
Most professionals suggest that the causes of borderline personality disorder are genetic and biological factors, psychological factors, and social factors. This shows that the development of borderline personality disorder depends on multiple factors. Research has shown that individuals have a high likelihood of suffering from borderline personality disorder when their parents are suffering from the disorder (Galione & Zimmerman, 2010). Environmental factors such as childhood abuse and neglect increase the chance of suffering from borderline personality disorder. According to Paris (2008), abnormality of the parts of the brain that regulates emotion, aggression, and impulsivity, as well as the malfunctioning of serotonin may lead to borderline personality disorder. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder include unstable emotions, relationships, self-image, significant impulsivity, recurring suicidal attempts, severe dissociation, intense anger, and chronic feeling of emptiness.
Nature and Nurture
It has been evident that both environmental, biological and genetic factors contribute to the development of borderline personality disorder. Nurture or environmental factors include childhood abuse, physical and emotional neglect, parental insensitivity, emotional abuse, among others. Studies have shown a strong relationship between the borderline personality disorders and distressing experiences during childhood (Galione & Zimmerman, 2010). However, it is necessary to note that some individuals with borderline personality disorder did not experience distress during childhood. Nature or biological and genetic factors include abnormality of the brain sections that control aggression, fear, anger, and emotion. A person may also suffer from borderline personality disorder when serotonin malfunctions. Parents can pass on the genetic problems to their children.
Diagnosis of borderline personality disorder may include self-test, either printable or an online one (Gunderson & Links, 2008). In hospitals or therapeutic centers, practitioners conduct mental-health interviews that determine the presence of the personality disorder’s symptoms. However, the practitioners will work by ruling out various disorders, such as schizophrenia, substance-abuse problems, and dependent personality disorder, which may share a variety of symptoms. To ensure that individuals are not suffering from medical conditions, practitioners need to ask for the most recent blood test or physical examination results (Gunderson & Links, 2008).
Treatment of borderline personality disorder may include medications, hospitalization, or psychotherapy (Paris, 2008). Psychotherapy involves a relationship between a counselor and a client. It includes schema-focused therapy, dialectic behavior therapy, transference-focused therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy. Medications such as antidepressants and antipsychotics can alleviate the symptoms of borderline personality disorder (Paris, 2008). Hospitalization is useful in keeping patients safe from suicidal attempts or self-injury behaviors.
Individuals with borderline psychology disorder tend to portray instability in emotions, relationships, and self-image (Gunderson & Links, 2008). Both nature and nurture can lead to the development of borderline personality disorder. Diagnosis of this disorder may include self-test or mental-health interviews. Treatment of borderline personality disorder may include medications, hospitalization, or psychotherapy (Paris, 2008).
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