1. Explain confucius' statement that "one who rules through the power of virtue is analogous to the polestar..." what does this imply about the masses?
Confucius remains one of the major contributors to leadership of virtue. In the above statement he meant that a person who leads with unswerving truthfulness is likened with the polestar and the northern star. Such leaders are virtuous and honest and generate humane policies. Their light becomes the mantle to the masses that guides even in the most challenging situation. Confucius regards masses as inattentive whose ignorance accounts to their vulnerability to greedy leaders. To cushion the masses from poor leadership he proposes that leadership be informed by moral and virtue.
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2. Provide a defense of anarchism. What do anarchists assume about human nature?
Anarchism is the political belief in having a society that is no governed by laws, organized policing or any other popular authority but should be organized and run through the association of the people. Like William Godwin, a renowned philosopher in Britain said, governments should be eliminated through euthanasia which is only achievable when every individual attains the highest level morality. Anarchists have been motivated by the continued disappointment of the general public by regimes.
Governments have lost all credibility. In American for instanced issues of unemployment, poor health, corruption and other social evils are attributable to poor regimes. The evidence is drawn from organized public demonstrations and revolutions to air their discontent. If governments never existed, people would relate very well. The society depicted by Henric Ibsen in the book an enemy of the people attest to the need to embrace anarchy. People have been exploited by the same government they have entrusted their security.
3. Explain Confucius' statement that "when the master was dining in the company of one who was in mourning, he never at his fill." How should one behave at a funeral? Why?
Confucius statement depicted the apathetic and sympathetic nature of the master. There is need for one to be mindful and share in the pains of the others. Once we appreciate that the pains we suffer in life are the same feelings our colleges suffer, we begin to wish a life of happiness to others. The master is not satisfied and composed since he shares in the pains and tribulations that the bereaved person is going through. To note is that, the master is concerned about the mourning of a stranger which further shows how our sympathy and apathy should transcend familial links.
During a funeral one should share in the mourning not out of pretence but through sincerity. It is not easy for one bare the loss of a beloved and takes a lot of virtue for the neighbor to show concern at such testing moments. Attending to the bereaved goes along way in consoling them and giving the newly found strength to soldier on in life.
4. Explain Confucius concept of virtue. How does it differ from Angelo's in measure for measure?
Virtue under Confucius is mooted on individual morals and the basic harmony among people. Considered as a 'throneless King,' Confucius believed that if everybody upheld the highest level of morality, this world would be a better place. Challenged by the general weaknesses in people in terms of upholding morality, Confucius recommends that the few among the public who are guided by virtue should be given the chance to offer leadership to the ignorant majority. Virtue according to him should not be compromised in order to attain power or divide people along social classes. Virtues people, though rare to find, are equated to the polestar around which other stars gather. In terms of property ownership, Confucius roots for social control that is guided of the behavior of a gentleman.
His approach to virtue differs with that of Angelou. Angelou believes that being virtuous is not coincidental and calls for courage. Whereas Confucius insinuates that everybody has the ability to be virtuous, Angelo insists that only the courageous have the ability to exercise consistent virtuous. She believes that though one can be erratic and do an act of virtue, lack of courage will deter them to be consistently virtuous. This is evident in the novel Measure for Measure by William Shakespeare where characters personalities change denying them the ability to be consistently virtuous. The character Angelo, a deputy, is elevated to command authority of the Duke. His inconsistencies and conflicts derived from human emotions and actions become the main source of conflict.
5. Define utilitarianism and provide two criticisms against it
Utilitarianism is the approach to morality in terms of worth and the act of capitalizing to maximizing positive utility while reducing negative utility. Utility in this line is defined as the human pleasure, meeting preferences and exploring knowledge in its deepest canyons. The most contributors to this concept are Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart.
Utilitarianism is not overly reliable as its proponents say. In pursuit to maximize utilities societies are inclined towards individualism and other tendencies of capitalism. As such, people continue to divide themselves along social classes. The wealthy continue being wealthy while the poor continue suffering.