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Basing on socio-cultural anthropology studies and personal experiences, I would like to put across two views that emerged during the establishment of the European Union’s Social Innovation Europe in 2011. The first view is that social innovation intended to promote sustainable development attempts to eliminate market limitations and the weakness, excesses and myopia of any social setting and the general economy. These socio-economic characteristics would include poverty, unemployment, homelessness and exclusion. The second view is that social innovation has the effect of proposing new concepts and ideas affecting a specific society, economy and human priorities for better life. This encompasses individual support networks, good diet and fair trade. Critically, the first view does not demand a big vision since people are expected to accept their societies as they are. The economy experience is the society is more or less doing well hence social innovation can be utilized in improving the efficiency by addressing some of the social problems such as unemployment and poverty. The second version of the view calls for a bigger vision. It entails changing the society we are living in to what we imagine. The economy is focused on improving the well being for all people.
The U.S. politics has been evolving over time. The point of contention has been whether to adopt the either a two-party system or a multi-party system. Federalists’ view has been to adopt two-party system arguing that it works fine for the country. They opposed multiparty system on the basis that it would enable the certain fringe political groups without credentials to gain power. Small groups which possess strong ideas and theology would rise to power. On the other hand, anti-federalists viewed multi-party system has more suitable and preferable. They argue that two-party system limits voters to a choice between two candidates. Two-party system is a perfect example of monopoly in the democratic nation. Anti-federalists view two-party system to give rise to monopolization of government resources. In addition, they system has the effect of taking the government decision making out of the hands of the majority. Anti-federalists advocate for multi-party system arguing that it promotes diversity or thought. They view multi-party system as preferable because it increases diversity in the political arena (Banner, 2000).
Christian and Naturalistic view about nature are similar. However, the view of the world in which human being lives in has been the basis of difference between the two. Christians view the world as having been created deliberately by God as a habitation for human being. This sharply contrasts with the naturalists who argue that the world was not deliberately planned for man. In their view, man was created accidentally through a purposeless process. The violent opposition between the Christian’s and Naturalist’s view of the world is based on the concept of teleology. Christian view man as a product of supernatural intervention hence cannot be managed scientifically. Naturalists’ view diametrically opposes Christians’ views. They believe that man is the introducer of purpose as oppose to God hence has the responsibility of directing evolution. Christians believe that human life exist in a multiplicity of spheres. In their view, each human being enjoys unlimited autonomy. This contradicts Naturalists who believe that human life does not occur in a multiplicity of spheres (Kurtz, 2000).