Sullivan, Mark. CSR Report for Congress: Venezuela, Political Conditions and U.S Policy. 2008. Congressional Research Service.
Sullivan uses this Congressional report to highlight numerous issues regarding the relationship between the U.S. officials and the populist rule of President Hugo Chávez since his first election in 1998 to his re-election in 2006 to serve for sixth term. Mark uses this paper to highlight on the expressed views by human rights regarding the Bolivian Republic of Venezuela’s rule. It also reflects on the continued efforts to remove Hugo from power due to threats he poses to the U.S. However, U.S. and the Venezuela have had a very close relationship traditionally as a major supplier of oil. According to Mark, the relationship was tainted by several issues such as accusations by Bush’s Administration that Hugo’s government should take action to deny the Venezuelan territory and weapon from being used by numerous terrorism organizations (Sullivan 22). In this report, the author also looks onto details on the way of governance during the reign of Chávez.
Steve, Ellner.Rethinking Venezuelan Politics: Class, Conflict, and the Chávez Phenomenon. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008. Print.
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This is a book that shows how interesting a leader can be since Hugo Chavez rose into power. In this book, the author discusses the Chavez era through highlighting on substantive issues. Steve Ellner talks about the leadership style of Hugo Chavez and his personality as a leader of a developing nation. The author uses an approach that focuses on substantive issues such as the struggle for democracy, adoption of economic and personalism, struggle for social justice, and efforts towards promoting national economic development. In regards to the relationship of Venezuelan president and Bush or Barack Obama, the author asserts that since Venezuela has been an “exceptional case” in Latin America, the president has been anti-neoliberal economic policies supported by the United States government (Steve 2). Ellner also highlights on Chavez’s relationship with George W. Bush and he says that Chavez does not operate alone, he believes in ruthless sharks like George Bush. Ellner also writes on Chavez’ rejection of the US dominated single polar world. He then concludes by highlighting on the social, economic, political, relations of Middle East countries and America.
Eva, Golinger. The Chávez Code: Cracking U.S. Intervention in Venezuela. Olive Branch Press, 2006. Print.
In this book, Eva Golinger discusses and points out that U.S.-Venezuelan relation reached their low point during years of George W. Bush. Eva claims that it began following what turned out to be a short-lived coup in April 2002 against Chávez. Eva further says that this was when White House statement could barely contain its delight. The book also affirms that during Clinton administrations, the Venezuelan relationship with US was already strained and it hardly improved during Obama administration. The author of this book is a US lawyer and based in Venezuela, who writes that through the guise of US democracy promotion efforts, has sought to subvert the Chavez regime. The book also contains fresh information and fresh documents gained through Freedom of Information Act, which is essential for a complete relation between US and Venezuela under Chavez administration. Gilinger highlights on the possible move by the US to subvert Chavez regime creates the impression that any US funded or supported initiative in Venezuela has nefarious and destabilizing objectives (Eva 1). Golinger finally says that diplomatic ties have incredibly undermined the commercial relationship between these two counties. He concludes by noting that US currently gets eight per cent of oil imports from Venezuela.
Javier, Corrales and Michael, Penfold. Dragon in the Tropics: Hugo Chávez and the Political Economy of Revolution in Venezuela. Brookings Institution Press, 2010. Print.
Both Javier and Michael in their book, begin by stating that there are three factors that must be taken into consideration for any inclusive and credible interpretation of contemporary Venezuela. These include the role of oil in the economy of Venezuela and US, grandiose and defiant foreign policy championed by Chavez, and progressive erosion of democratic security. The authors focus on political framework and economical grounds that makes Chavez a dictatorship rule in Venezuela. They argue that Chavez has immensely contributed to Venezuelan petroleum sector’s weakening as well as economic distortion. The authors also affirm that Chavez tries to curtail the influence of United States, both in West hemisphere and internationally. They also use the book to illustrate their argument concerning the disruptive influence of Chavez, by citing the Bolivarian alternative to the Free Trade Area of Americas, commonly referred to as ALBA (Javier and Michael 37). The book concludes by revealing that South American liberator Simon Bolivar who promotes regional integration is the main source of inspiration to Chavez.
Cristina, Marcano and Alberto B. Tyszka. Hugo Chávez: The Definitive Biography of Venezuela's Controversial President. Random House, 2007. Print.
This is another book that highlights on the relationship between US and Venezuela. This book is based on the Gabriel García Márquez’ account on his essay that talks of Nobel Prize in literature and Chavez flight from Havana to Caracas few days after Chavez was sworn in as the president. His essay “Two Faces of Chavez”, which is a remarkable in highlighting on the kind of leader Venezuelan have, is really thought provoking. When Gabriel concludes his essay, he says that he had the opportunity to travel with two opposite men, an illusionist and a lucky man with the opportunity to save his nation.the authors, Christina and Alberto discus numerous instances depicting the roles Chavez plays in governing Venezuela. In one instance, they write about Teodoro Petkoff, a former leftist guerilla fighter who picks from the previous essay by Marcia and highlights on numerous dimensions taken by Chavez. Petkoff is a Chavez critic, but he also opposes the numerous US policies toward Venezuela. The book also discusses some of the fundamental issues behind Chavez’s legitimacy. The authors of this book, Christina and Alberto are journalist from Venezuela and the amicably produce a well researched book that sheds considerable light on how Chavez is a leader with a complex personality. They conclude by providing information showing how Chavez’s personality played a role in the 1992 coup attempt, which was opposed by the US (Christina and Alberto 57).
Sean W. Burges. Building a Global Southern Coalition: The Competing Approaches of Brazil's Lula and Venezuela's Chavez. Third World Quarterly, 28, no. 7 (2007).
This is an immensely compelling article that seeks to highlight on national political project for Chavez as a shrewd and cumulative power grabber who likes foreign policies. In this article the author, Sean Burges highlights that Chaves is guided by his own interpretation of Bolivar legacy and fueled by anti-US discourse and tools of petro-diplomacy. Sean discusses the tight relationship of Chavez and Cuba, where Chaves exchanged Cuban doctors, anti-US ally with oil since he had control over the policies that blend oil power. This article discusses the relationship of Venezuela and many other countries such as China, Moscow, America, and Brazil. Sean Burges argues in his article that Chavez employs strategy of expediency and self-control, which has been extremely victorious in sustaining leadership roles in Latin America (22). This article concludes by underscoring that the Brazil’s assertive policy that focuses on building multipolar world supported US contrasts with Chavez’s defiant anti-US posture.
“Obama: 'We can move U.S.-Cuban relations in a new direction'.” CNN.com. 17 April 2009. 18 April 2009 <http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/04/17/obama.latinamerica/index.html?iref=mpstoryview>.
This is a CNN article that underscores the efforts made by Obama administration to ensure that the relationship between Cuba and US undergoes through a transformation process. It also dwells on Raul Castro’s agreement to discuss issues with Obama with the intention of creating a lasting solution to issues derailing the relationship between US and Cuba. The article further explores on the things that indicate how Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez trusts Obama. It also provides insight on issues that Obama continues to play an integral role towards ensuring the numerous problems that affect the relationship of the two countries are fixed. This CNN article titled, “We can move US-Cuban relations in a new direction” clearly indicates that Obama’s administration is successful as compared to Bush administration. It concludes by indicating some of the areas that Obama manages to thrive but Bush relentlessly never accomplished anything.
Press, The Associated. “Washington uninterested in Hugo Chavez's offer let Guantanamo detainees come to Venezuela.” The Daily News. 3 April 2009. 18 April 2009 <http://www.nydailynews.com/news/us_world/2009/04/03/2009-04-03_washington_uninterested_in_hugo_chavezs_.html?print=1&page=all>.
This Daily News article confers on several issues associated with the settlement of detainees from the Guantanamo bay. In this Daily News article the relationship of Hugo Chavez and the Obama administration is clearly spelled out as one that is geared towards creation of a better nation. The article further goes ahead and discusses the manner in which Hugo Chavez of Venezuela offered to let Guantanamo detainees into his country. This same article draws attention to some of the reasons that might have avoided Washington to not having the interest to offer a place for the Guantanamo bay detainees. Chavez shows that he still has good relations with Obama by stating that he has no problem taking in any remaining detainees. He further states that he will honor Obama’s decision to close the base. The article concludes by indicating that all these are despite of Chavez’s criticism of the base’s existence in Cuba disapprovingly. It is an article that also shows that Obama’s relationship with Chavez is positive to both the nations as compared to the reign of George Bush.
Hugo Chavez: I’d vote for Barack Obama. http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/politics/2012/10/08/mitt-romney-says-obama-too-passive-with-hugo-chavez-middle-east/
In a fox news report, Hugo Chavez said that if he were an American he would for Barack Obama, in the next US presidential race. They further indicate that Mr Chavez and Mr Obama shook hands at a 2009 summit, although, this good relation have since cooled. However, it shows that the current US president is in good terms with Venezuelan president, Hugo Chavez referring to Obama as a good leader. In this report, through a televised interview the Venezuelan president admits that Obama is a great leader. It also explores on the issues that should see Venezuelan president and the current US president elected this year. It further talks of the tense relation that the Venezuelan has had with the US government that led to the revoking of the visa of the Venezuelan ambassador to the US. It also states that the US remains the top buyer of oil from Venezuela and the need to continue and start a new era of normal relation following their next general election. This fox new report concludes by citing what Chavez said in a Venezuelan television channel, Televen when he was interviewed, “I wish we could begin a new period of normal relation with the US government.”
Sullivan, Mark. United States–Venezuela relations: Venezuela’s Foreign Affairs Minister Says Relations with U.S. are Frozen - Embassy of Venezuela. 2011.
In this article, Mark discusses numerous issues pertaining to the US-Venezuela relation in various aspects, which he refers to as traditionally close. Some of the issues highlighted on the article include Chavez’s presidency; allegations of US covert actions opposing Chavez government; response to assassination calls; economic relations; personal disagreements; putative coup and invasions; and the government of Obama. Some of the allegations include the claims that Chavez after assuming power, the US military allegedly was involved in the coup in Venezuela. He further alleged that the US after the coup, still wanted to overthrow him. In terms of economic relation, the article affirms that Chavez ideology and tension between Venezuela and US government has had little impact. Both countries benefit from one another economically; however, since the beginning of George W. Bush administration, Chavez highly criticized the US economic and foreign policy (Sullivan 3). In this article the author concludes by stating that the relationship between Venezuela and US has not been good since both Obama and Bush interrupted progress of the growth in Venezuela.
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