A new phase of war in Afghanistan began in October 2001. The United States of America, the Afghan United Front, the United Kingdom and the AustralianCommonwealth launched the operation aiming at enduring freedom. The September attacks on the United States of America by the al-Qaeda terrorist group were considered to be the main reason, which led to the operation in Afghanistan. Another aim was to remove the Taliban regime of and create a more democratic state.
In the late 1994, most militia factions were defeated by forces of the Islamic secretary, called Ahmad Shah Massoud, after fighting in the battle for the control of Kabul. Massoud tried to initiate a nationwide political process with an aim of consolidating national and democratic elections, thus inviting the Taliban to join in the process. Later the Taliban declined Massoud’s request and started shelling Kabul. However, they were defeated in early 1995 by the State government of Islamic forces under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Massoud.
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The early victories of the Taliban in 1994 were followed by a number of losses and defeats. The Taliban received support and help from the Pakistan forces, which were against the leadership of Massoud. With the continuous support from the Pakistan and financial support of the Saudi Arabia States in September 1996, the Taliban succeeded and captured Kabul. They imposed judicial and political interpretation of the Islamic law after the establishment of Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
The Taliban committed massacres towards civilians, trying to consolidate their control over the western and northern Afghanistan. Their main target was to seize people of Hazara ethnic and Shia religious backgrounds. The Pakistanis and the Arabs fully participated in the massacres since they provided financial and military forces support. In 2001, Afghan Taliban, Pakistan nationals and the al-Qaeda militants fought against anti-Taliban forces in Afghanistan.
The Afghanistan state was used by the Taliban and al-Qaeda army forces for training of fighters, weapon importation, co-ordination with the jihadists and plotting of terrorist actions against other states. The al-Qaeda militia maintained its own establishment in the state and provided support for training camps that belonged to other organizations.
Later, in August 1998, after the Embassy bombings in the United States of America, which was linked to Osama Bin Laden, the leader of the group, the missile strikes were ordered on the training camps of the militants in Afghanistan by President Clinton. The U.S.A officials requested the Taliban’s to hand over Osama Bin Laden to the United States Authority, but they faced resistance from the Taliban’s who rebuffed their demands. All this resulted in the war between the two nations; the United States of America wanted to capture the leader of the al- Qaeda group, Osama Bin Laden, who based in Afghanistan.
After the 1998 United States Embassy bombings, the American government changed its policies towards Afghanistan. The next step was to accuse Osama Bin Laden of his involvement in the Embassy bombings. The Taliban were requested to surrender Bin Laden for the trial and close all training military bases of the al-Qaeda groups in Afghanistan. The war intensified when Massoud collaborated with the United States intelligence service in search of Osama Bin Laden.
In August 2001, Bush Administration offered a mechanism, which supported the anti-Taliban, led by Ahmed Shah Massoud, whose mission was a creation of a democratic government in Afghanistan. By this time, the anti-Talibans fought against the Taliban and the al-Qaeda military forces, trying to take under control the governance of Afghanistan state. A meeting conducted by Bush Administration and the national security officials agreed that military aid would to be channeled by the United States to the anti-Taliban groups, when the final request to hand over Osama Bin Laden failed. However, the two options agreed on the meeting completely failed; the U.S. would seek to overthrow the Taliban’s by use of a more strict action.
In late 2001, the leader of the anti-Taliban group, Ahmed Shah Massoud, announced that the al-Qaeda groups and the Taliban had introduced a wrong Islamic perception, and later warned the United States of a large-scale attack. Massoud has put much effort to fight against the Taliban to liberate his country, which faced a major blow when he died. Massoud died at the age of 48 years after an attack by some fake Arab journalists, who detonated a bomb hidden in their video camera during Khoja Bahauddin interview in Afghanistan.
A serious war sparked out in Afghanistan, when President George Bush was authorized to use the United States Armed Forces against those, who were responsible for the 2001 September attacks on the U.S.A. The United States government later launched military operations in Afghanistan, which comprised of the Special Activities Division (SAD) and were later joined by the United States Army Special Forces. Airstrikes were reported in Kabul on October 7th, 2001, where supplies of electricity services were provided.
During the war between the United States Military Forces with the support of anti-Taliban groups, and Taliban military sites, the terrorist military training grounds faced bomb attacks from air strikes. The Taliban’s requested the U.S officials to halt the bombings when they handed over the Taliban leader, Osama Bin Laden, to a third country for trials, but they faced a major blow when the U.S officials turned down their request. Liberate Heart worked jointly with the British and American forces against the Taliban’s. Other states, including Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia, stepped in to give a helping hand to the two forces in Afghanistan by deployment of forces and providing access, bases and over flight permissions. The war continued until major capitals, including Kabul, were captured by the United States Army Forces; unfortunately many inhabitants were killed or fled away for their own safety.
Soldiers participated in the war experienced post-traumatic stress. It affected soldiers because most of them witnessed those horrible events and killed many people. Many of them suffer from those frightening recollections, nightmares, depression, impulse aggressiveness land mood swings.
Soldiers from the Afghanistan war experienced increased mental disturbances. Many of them decided to go home to experience a civilian life rather than stay in the military camps or bases. The most common mental problems among the latter soldiers are suicidal thoughts, depression, aggression and stress. Those who decided to remain in the military bases experienced low self-esteem.
Soldiers participated in the Afghanistan war experienced marital related problems such as family break ups and negligence of responsibilities. The problem has mostly affected the soldiers who decided to abandon their families and search for the new ones. Many soldiers expressed violence towards the closest people.
The soldier’s experienced psychological effects that completely affected their social lives. Most of them preferred sitting in an isolated area, where there was no disturbance at all. Most of the latter soldiers are engaged in in alcohol drinking, as they consider alcohol as a way to erase the frightful pictures of war from their minds. Long time of service in Afghanistan worsened their relations with their family members, because most of them forgot their family roles as the war completely changed their way of living and thinking.
The psychology of the soldiers completely changed, because most of them experienced their friends or relatives killed in the war. The war made most of them physically unfit due to the deformed body parts such as loss of arms, eyes or legs; it caused an immense psychological effect on them.
The soldiers were highly tempered and got used to perform all the commands from their leaders. They carried out the orders without hesitation. Most of them regarded violence as a normal issue and could even kill in cases of being disturbed or angered.
In conclusion, the Afghanistan war caused a major change in reforms of the United States, Afghanistan and the world in general. The terrorist groups declined after the flashing out of the Taliban and al-Qaeda related groups. It changed the way of life in Afghanistan by establishing a democratic leadership instead of the Taliban and al-Qaeda leaders. However, the war left soldiers participated in the war psychologically affected. The soldiers therefore need to be psychologically counseled to curb all the negative consequences, which emerged after the war.
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