There has been a debate as to why animals should be the point of discussion. In most literary work, animals have been seen to resemble human beings. Some studies have even personified these animals. At times it becomes difficult to understand the information that the author is trying to put across. Sometimes it becomes difficult to understand the message that the author is conveying. There is thus a need to interrogate as well as critically analyze these materials so as to address the areas where readers may not have understood or where the authors were unable to address.
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The author currently heads U.C’s Creative Writing. Born and raised in the United States of America, her work has worn awards in America. The selection of her stories as the best in America proves her credibility as a writer. Apart from this, she has worn several awards including O. Henry Awards, Pushcart Prize. Her short stories are currently rated the best in the century. She uses her experiences with day to day places, people as well as events to develop the stories. She studied English at Denison University, Ohio and Doctorate program at Utah University. Among her other literature work include cowboy is my weakness, men before 10 A.M, waltzing Cat. All her books have been credited the best in America. She was inspired to engage in art after reading the book called the things they carried in written by Tim O’Brien. Currently, she teaches at University of California graduate school. Apart from that, she engages herself in teaching many conferences on writing, both in U.S as well as in England. She is gifted in both writing and teaching.
The novel is talking about a man named Rae Rutherford who is said to be an animal lover, owner of the ranch, as well as play writer. The presence of his dog named Dente is what makes the story more fascinating. Rae is seen to love this dog so much. Other characters in the story include her mother who she describes as being actress (Pam, 12). She considers possibly considers her mother as possibly being bisexual. During her wedding day, she becomes tearful on realization that she was to leave Dente (her dog) behind. In the novel, Rae’s husband, Howard is seen to be emotionally troubled. His career is an actor who is cross-dressing though he is said not to be a gay (10).
Rae is seen to remember veterinary surgeon who she says was the best in America as well as the surgeon’s vet student at Gulf War, both of whom she says took care of Dante. She also remembers her ranch-sitter by the name Darlene. Darlene on her part is seen to tartly remember her boss’s misadventure with men who were undependable (Pam, 12). Darlene unlike Rae is seen to assort nonhuman for example Rae’s already obedient as well as faithful “next dog” whose name is Rose. Darlene is also observed to have neutered Stanley the tomcat. Stanley on his part is seen to have humor sense which is nasty (Pam, 12).
The novel is ostensibly “about” Rae. It revolves around her maturity which is late-blooming as indicated by her being consented as a spouse. She is also seen as a steward who is responsible both to the earth as well as to all creatures irrespective of their size (Pam, 8). She is also viewed as a sexual being that is confident. The novel keeps mentioning Dante and this name is repeated severally in the novel. The relationship between Dante and Rae is seen to be very strong. Rae views her canine companion, Dante as being courageous (Pam, 7).
The author is seen to have used the animal all over the novel. This is seen by the mention of Dante. The dog, Dante is said to be with Rae even during the wedding day and it is indeed the one who walked her to her walked (“Dante walked me down the aisle, of course”). Once the dog was lastly “put down”, Rae is seen to have been so much affected (Pam, 6). She is said to have been so remorseful as though that was the death of Dante. There are times when the novel is not consistent with the flow. The use of animals all over the novel as well as the use of their viewpoint is somehow bringing a lot of confusion to the reader.
There is familiarity in human voice characters and this can make the reader become confused. The author would have used unfamiliar voices when it comes to the human voice. More emphasis has been put on the love that Rae has to her dog Dante. The main emphasis of the author was to show the interaction of human beings and animals. Rae is seen to be so intimate with animals to an extent of feeling so lonely when her time of getting married came (Pam, 6). The author has shown this very well. The relationship between human beings and animals is a well-researched area field. Several researchers as well as environmentalists have been able to provide us with this relationship.
Professor Karl Armbruster’s is another person who has written novels showing the relationship between human and animals. He too has worn rewards one of them being annual course award on animal and society. He has written several novels including seal wives, Werewolves, Grizzly men among others. Both the writers love animals and this may have contributed to them featuring animals in their novels (Karla, 1). The two narrates of their animal since their childhood. Unlike Pam Houston who does not directly mention her love for animals directly in her novels, Armbruster mentions about her memory of her Pet by the name Lassie. People reading these novels will find it difficult to interpret that they are talking about the relationship between human and animals. The authors should have made their novels more open for understanding.
The title of Pam’s novel was well written as the number of words was not more than twelve. The same is true to Armbrust’s novel. Animals according to Susan Mchugh, paradox have been used to frame studies on animals (Susan, 11). She further points out that animals have been present in many literatures though little has been done to emphasis their relevance in literacy study systems. The two authors have done a lot in ensuring that there is inclusion of animals in literature. A literature by Susan McHugh attracts criticism right from the subtitle. The subtitle is “Narrating across species lines” has an impact on the tile: animal stories. in the beginning of her narration, she challenges the common belief that the use of animals in the title of her work are representative of human fears, beliefs as well as desires (Susan, 11). The author should have considered revising her title so as to create more clarity on what she wanted to address
Susan is able to show the area where human and animals do have interaction. She talks of how the relationship between animals and human beings mutates. This mutation is well elaborated in the second part of the book, a part she refers to as intercorporeal narrative. She points out that the sexual behavior of animals change when they interact with human beings (Susan, 11). This is because they do not mate as they are kept as pet. Such information is missing in the novel of Pam Houston as well as that of Armbrust. Unlike the two authors whose books are hard to understand, her argument is clear from the start. The love for animals motivated both Pam and Armbrust to stand their literature work.
Historically, animals have been of relating well with the people and all the author have clearly shown that in their work. They have done this by showing the relationship that exists between them. It was however essential that these authors should have given an insight as to what extent that animals and human beings should interact (Karla, 10).Susan’s book appears to be innovative as shown by her narrative forms interest. she argues that the narrative forms are essential and aids as producing grounds for species forms as well as social agencies. She sees visual narrative as being valuable for experiment purpose. She is able to provide facts as to why humanist should not be trusted when it comes to the relationship between animals and human beings.
On her part, the work of Professor Karla Armbrust is superb and is able to address the question the interaction between human and animals. She not only writes about the relationship between animals and human beings but also teaches about the same to students. The flow of paragraph is well taken care of in her work (Karla). Karla lives in Colorado where she teaches English at Colorado. She is a hold English Phd from Ohio University.