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The paper in America referred to as Pittsburgh courier was the oldest newspaper in the American media in Pennsylvania. It was published in Pittsburgh of Pennsylvania from the year 1907 to 1965. It was at that time the most circulated black newspaper of the country. The legacy of the paper the Pittsburgh courier was unparalleled. It was a pillar of the press of the black and rose rapidly together with the civil rights movement in Pennsylvania. This was among the most forceful voices of the state by that time within the American state. At the time, it was most selling it poised distribution sales and circulation of about two hundred thousand with over four hundred employees in the fourteen cities within the country. As it was the widely read newspaper, it focused and addressed on issues that were mainly affecting the African American community in Pennsylvania and people paid much attention to this issues of the paper.
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Bowling in Pittsburg
Bowling is a sport best known and developed in the United States of America. It is a game or sport where the players try to score by rolling a bowling ball along the flat surfaces. The surfaces according to the Pittsburg courier are either synthetic or wooden. The Pittsburg, however, dealt with major issues including sports and social trends and treatment. The paper tried to address issues of discrimination in sport like bowling and at times went political in its publications (The Pittsburgh Courier 2005). It even resulted to the rise of political alliances that is still present in the current American system today (Washburn and Pat 1986). However, the paper finally ran to bankruptcy and ceased in hr publications and circulation in 1965.
The newspaper fought against the segregation, discrimination, and alienation of professional sport of bowling. Bowling was mainly viewed as the white American could only bowl together but not with the African American. Wendell smith who was the newspaper writer on sports in the newspaper in the year 1938 used his writings to address the discrimination. In his column, he tried and denounced segregation in bowling. The contribution of Wendell smith brought about the signing with Jackie Robinsons' on the Brooklyn dodgers in 1947. In early years of his bowling career, smith never travelled with the other American groups, and if he did, he used separate means and even slept in different and segregated hotel.
The courier was one of the then known few black papers that provided coverage and reports of the news of in African American discrimination and separation in the sport of bowling. The African American never bowled together for some time, and the other bowling participants used the ten pin bowling while the African American bowled with ninepin bowling until it was later removed. This was because the Pittsburgh courier magazine addressed the issue because the ninepin bowling was faced by gambling. It was considered that sport needed mental and physical competition activity, which was performed for recreation l purposes and as a competition in that context. It was a prestigious sport meant for self-enjoyment ant to achieve excellence. This purpose was, therefore, discriminatory in the sport in that the African Americans were ideally having few and limited bowling centers. There were centers for whites only for bowling and a few bowling centers for the black Americans (Buni, Robs and Vann 1974).
The African American bowled for some time without using the bowling shoes. This affected their delivery of the bowling ball along the delivery lanes. The use of the bowling shoes was a safety measure in the sport such that skilled bowler would deliver the bowling ball without sliding, and their forward momentum would cause them fall and may hurt themselves. This was absent to the African American bowlers who bowled without the bowling shoes for quite long time. This predisposed them to the risk of falling and subsequent injuries would result because of bowling without the bowling shoes.
The bowling proprietors who were mainly the white Americans argued that the bowling shoes were to be worn by only normal people was because even when delivering the bowling ball by working slowly up the lane the forward and careless movement would make one slide. Therefore, they believed that the African Americans were not such cautious when bowling therefore, no need for bowling shoes for them. This was a clear discrimination and indication that the African American bowlers were not good brain wise to use the bowling shoes. Furthermore, the Pittsburg courier on bowling added that because the African American bowlers had no bowling shoes, they ewe forced to us the normal shoes. The proprietors of bowling who were the white bowler's believed that normal shoes could deposit dirt on the lanes and even scuff the bowling lanes. This led to the segregation of the black and white bowlers in different bowling grounds. The proprietor of bowling also knew that bowlers could slide improperly and hurt themselves when they bowled with regular shoes.
The sport of bowling was most popular only in the United States and the United Kingdom where the game originated and developed. Bowlers in these nations were mainly white, and these gave them the basis of national regulatory organization of the game rules and conduct. The professional players of these two nations only participated in the national and international tournaments sidelining other nationals of America who were had the African origin especially in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania.
Most of the bowling alleys were relatively small at the turn of the nineteenth century. The indoor bowling game was as long seen as the game of the working classes, which further. They promoted segregation of the players of bowl in Pittsburgh state. The segregated participants were here the African American group. The sport was mainly played in private establishments frequented by men mainly. Therefore, the sport also had some discriminatory aspect based on gender. Although the working classes nowadays have been properly, stated bowling is no longer a unisex sport and is enjoyed all over the world by different unsegregated group of people. The bowling trends in the Pittsburgh changed joined by similar organizations toward female bowler's involvement. These groups started putting in place the standard regulations for bowling that have been in place to present day bowling in the world. At that particular time, the putting up of luxurious and comfortable alleys, for example, boosted the image of the bowling sport among the segregating and known as upper classes. The White Elephant of New York City, which was, put in place by Joe Thum the one currently known as the father of bowling.
Bowling was a game and sport reserved for certain social or economic classes in the state. Pittsburgh courier was the oldest newspaper in the American media in Pennsylvania from the year 1907 to 1965. The newspaper was a pillar of the press of the black and rose rapidly together with the civil rights movement in Pennsylvania. It was widely read newspaper that focused and addressed on issues that were mainly affecting the African American community in Pennsylvania and people paid much attention to this issues of the paper. Although Bowling was a prestigious sport meant for self-enjoyment and to achieve excellence, it is now a popular sport played all over the world without discrimination.