Emotional development is the development of a complete range of emotions from sad to happy to angry, and learning to deal with them appropriately. This paper presents an overview of the developmental tasks involved in the emotional development of children and teenagers which progresses into adulthood. In kids, emotional growth refers to the achievement of emotional ability and their development as the child grows. These capabilities allow the kids to have feelings about how they interact with others. Emotional development offers children the capabilities and expertise that they require to function and live in the society and the rest of the world.
Erik Erikson articulated eight stages of emotional development these illustrate the stages one goes through from infancy to late childhood through healthy development. In each stage an individual tackles, and optimistically learns how to cope with new challenges. Each stage is dependent on the success of the earlier stage. The difficulty of stages not completed lucratively reappears as a problem.
The socialization process was put together but through wide range knowledge in psychiatric therapy, including broad experience with children and adolescents from all social classes. Each stage is viewed as a psychosocial crisis that arises and demands decree before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated.
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All the eight stages are envisaged in acceptable learning and decree of each crisis. Emotional development is explicit, since babies lack the language to rely how they feel. Nonetheless, it emerges that babies are born with ability for universal thrill, and at birth the babies acquire at least a sense of distress if not several other distinguishable emotions. The rest of the emotions seem to unfold with the maturation of the nervous system and the acquisition of experience.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development:
i. Learning Basic Trust V Basic Mistrust (Hope)
This is the period of infancy all to the through the first one or two years of life. The child who is well - handled, cared for, and loved, develops trust and security and a basic hopefulness. Badly handled, become insecure and mistrustful.
ii. Learning Autonomy V Shame (Will)
This occurs during early childhood, mostly between about 18 months or 2 years and 3½ to 4 years of age. The "well - parented" child comes out from this stage sure of himself, elated with his new found control, and proud rather than ashamed.
Independence is not, entirely tantamount with certain self - possession, initiative, and autonomy but, for children in the early part of this psychosocial crisis, includes, tantrums, stubbornness, and negativism. For instance, a 2 year old resolutely folding their arms to prevent their mothers from holding their hands as they cross the street.
iii. Learning Initiative V Guilt (Purpose)
Erikson supposes that this third psychosocial crisis occurs during what he calls the play age, at about 3½ years at which they enter into formal school. In this stage, the healthily developing child learns: to imagine, to guide and to follow immobilized by guilt, to widen his skills through active play of all sorts, to cooperate with others a child is fearful and hangs on the fringes of groups and displays continued dependence on adults most significantly the child is restricted both in the development of play skills and in imagination.
iv. Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence)
Erikson believes that in this competence stage, psychosocial crisis is handled, for better or worse, during the school age, presumably up to and possibly including some of junior high school. In this stage the child learns to master the more formal skills of life: these are connecting with peers in relation to conventions, making progress from liberated play to play that is elaborately structured by rules and may demand formal teamwork, such as basketball and mastering social studies, reading, arithmetic. The need for self-discipline increases annually. A child who, because of his successive and successful resolutions of earlier psychosocial crisis, is trusting, independence, and full of initiative learns easily enough to be industrious, conversely the mistrusting child is likely to doubt the future the shame and guilt filled child experiences defeat and inferiority.
v. Learning Identity V Identity Diffusion (Fidelity)
This stage occurs in adolescence, at the age of 13 or 14 to about 20 the child, the child learns how to respond adequately and blissfully about his personality. Most adolescents experience role identity dispersion whereby most boys and probably most girls try out with minor misbehavior; rebelliousness; self - doubts set in and so do feels of insecurity.
Erikson believes that during successful early adolescence, mature time perspective is developed; the young person acquires self-certainty as opposed to self-consciousness and self-doubt. He comes to experiment with different - usually constructive - roles rather than adopting felony. He actually anticipates achievement, and achieves, rather than feeling inferior or inadequacy of time perspective. In later adolescence, clear sexual identity - manhood or womanhood - is established. The adolescent looks for someone to inspire him, and steadily develops a socially congruent and desirable set of ideals. Adolescence affords a psychosocial halt, particularly for middle - and upper-class American children (Erikson).
vi. Learning Intimacy V Isolation (Love)
In this sixth stage the successful young adult, can at this point experience true intimacy possible to make possible good marriage or a genuine and enduring friendship.
vii. Learning Generativity V Self-Absorption (Care)
In adulthood, this psychosocial crisis insists on generativity, in the and sense of marriage and parenthood as well as in working productively and creatively.
At this stage one expresses care to those that he cherishes.
viii. Integrity Versus Despair (Wisdom)
After the successful resolution of the seven prior stages, the mature adult expands the peak of regulation; honesty. The adult is autonomous and dares to try new stuff. He is a hard worker, has a well - defined role in life, and has cultivated a self-concept with which he is content. He can be friendly without tension, guilt lack of realism, regret he is particularly proud of his family, his career, or his activities that he does since he does things with integrity, ultimate definition of success.
If one or more of the earlier psychosocial crises have not been resolved, the individual sees himself and his life with loathe and hopelessness. It's therefore very important for parents to realize the significance of the people who encircle their children in their early babyhood and the impact it is likely to have on them later in life. Children have a tendency of aping the character of their caregivers which in turn influences the emotional development of the particular child.
According to Lawrence Kohlberg people continue to grow and develop emotionally throughout their lives. He determined that people work through six stages in three levels having two stages each of moral development so as to reach the highest potential, this is reasonable sine he acknowledged that that not all people reach the highest levels of morality and emotional maturity, the goal is for parents to encourage their kids emotional development while at the same time depicting candid and reputable examples to the gullible young ones.
In emotional development, the children also knows how to behave around their friends handling issues of , jealousy, envy, trust and exposure are challenges all friendships face, the parents being the attachment figures for their children should thus train their children on the use of expressions emotion labels, assessments, and regulation approaches, they should also introduce them to cultural and sub cultural guidelines on emotion through a range of experiences that challenge kids through development many as such act as learning platforms for the children by which they develop certain lesson that lead to positive behavioral changes.
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