Free «Automotive Engine Management» Essay Sample

            Burning fuels as it used to be done in the later days was later going to be of a greater help. Now the machine industry has gotten a bigger boost in the way how technical it has evolved from the first invention times of carburettors to the now known piezzo injector engines. This has been a series of discoveries and still gauging by the technological tides, then the future will find this industry in a more improved place with a more sophisticated machines. Many vehicle and car owners tend to prefer to use the type of fuel which is relatively cheap without putting into mind the effects that these fuels have on the environment after the combustion process. These fuels after combustion tend to emit gases into the atmosphere which are not environment friendly and end up causing global warming.

  1. Introduction

Spray formation and combustion has remained to be the dominant way of conversion of energy by providing most of the world’s energy requirements. The spray formation process and the spray droplet size distribution are crucial for the design and the operation of the spray combustion systems which have a very high efficiency in energy levels and low pollutant emission. The spray formation in its early process is determined with unstoppable wave motion while in its final stage; it is usually less random due to the non-linear effects of these wave developments which are unstoppable (Bossard, 1996).

A spray produces enormous droplets and the description of these individual droplets that are produced is highly improbable and requires a statistical treatment. The immediate model shows the deterministic aspect by the linear and the non-linear theories and the stochastic aspect produced by the statistical means which given a flow condition at the exit of the nozzle can predict the spray formation process. It can also predict the distribution of the subsequent droplet sprays which have been formed. The effects of the conditions of the exit of the nozzle on the distributions of the droplet sizes can be investigated.

The place in which the spark is positioned is significantly important as it determines the length a droplet is going to travel before it reaches the detonator. This is explored in a better way by making sure the spark is centrally placed normally placed near the exhaust valve. The combustion chambers are also promoted by the increased ratio of compression. Highest useful compression ratio is the compression ration that determines if combustion will take place. If the ratio happens to be higher than the higher the chances are of combustion and if the ratio turn out to be small then the lesser the chances of combustion to occur.

A carburettor is one of the earliest devices developed as a means to combine petrol in engines. This development underwent through some stages of development. The first one being the surface carburettors which used the volatility nature of petrol as an advantage to achieve the goal. The architect behind the innovation was known as Karl Benz where he got this idea as he was busy trying to come up with an internal combustion engine. Later, it was followed by a slight improvement by Janos Csonka and his fellow Donat Banki, both of them being engineers from Hungary. This was called the “roasting brush carburettor” (Heinz, 1995 p. 182)

Later in 1896, Frederick and William Lanchester who come from England came up with a wick carburettor which was used in cars.

The idea employed in these carburettors was to burn the petrol so as to produce enough pressure, and then use the pressure to turn a turbine in the engine. In the carburettor, a very small amount of petrol is needed in almost every combustion cycle. Since when there is no enough supply of petrol in the combustion chambers, the engine “runs lean” and if the opposite happens then the engine “runs rich”. Both of these conditions are not favourable to the engine. Hence the carburettor helps in ejecting or mixing the right amount of petrol with air for a successful combustion cycle which will in turn let the engine run in an appropriate manner.

a)         Operations in deferent speeds

The carburettors are designed to enable one operate the engine at the speed one desires. One of the ways is to use the ability of the carburettor to mix air and the petrol. The engine only burns an amount of the fuel and converts it to energy useful to move the engine. The approximate ratio is 12.15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel. By this, the carburettor normally regulates the mixture in an accurate way. It is normally placed strategically outside the engine in order to regulate the inflow of air/fuel to the chambers. This means, it has to meter the fluid mixture over a range of the engine speeds and the amount of the load within a very short frame of time. It responds by restricting the air flowing into the engine hence reducing the engine power, i.e. a ‘lean’ and when the air flow is increased, the engine is energized to maximum power, i.e. a ‘rich’ and also used for idling” (Heinz, 1995 p. 182-185)

To start it up, it must be given a choke which is a rich mixture for starting up the engine when it’s cold. This choke is later shut off automatically when the engine has warmed up.

Just past the surface there is a venture, which is a narrowed passage as the air flows in. this narrowing helps in creating a vacuum. This vacuum enables the creation of a region with high pressure.  Also, in the narrowing, a hole exists called a jet which helps in drawing fuel in.

The injector design in the Mechanical (K-Jetronic) 

In this system the injectors are operated hydraulically using the fuel pressure (depending on the specifications). When the pressure is applied against the spring loaded needle the injector, it opens automatically at a pressure of approximately 3.8 bars and starts to spray the fuel before the inlet valve. The fuel then flows continuously from all the injectors at the same time. This type can be called pintle type.

            benefits & problems


Carbonators systems are good in maintaining the ratio of air and petrol mixture which makes it relevant for specific limits which are defined. This makes it to have a superior performance in terms of economising fuel, convenience, power and also for comfort.

They are simpler to operate and use a variety of models to achieve the desired function. E.g. the four barrel carburettor known as the “quadrajet” which was discovered later.


The choke in a carburettor is normally operated with especially when one starts up the engine when it has been in a cold situation for a long time by adjusting it slowly till the engine warms up.

When the choke is on and covers the hollow part “venturi” and the throttle is opened wide, then the vacuum will draw a sizeable amount of fuel past the main jet and the idle jet. This will only enable the engine to fire just once or twice but not continuous.

3.1.2.     Injection systems:

These are systems which like the carburettors are used for mixing of fuel (gasoline or diesel) with air inside a combustion chamber found in the engine. The injection system is designed to specifically for the type of fuel it will handle. I this design, the carburettors had to be replaced with a system of the throttle body which is also referred to as the single point injection system. It also incorporated the use of the electrically monitoring of the injection systems before even the injection happened (Aird, 2001 p. 29).

Later, there was the improvement of the central fuel/single point injection systems to multi-point injectors which had an injector for almost every of their cylinder.

In this one, the K-jetronic system, the injection is continually and does not have an external device/drive as a necessity. But instead, it regulates the amount of mass by the means of a fuel distributor instead for the mass being determined by the injection valve.

It also contains a series of sensors in order to monitor and control the injection. Those are normally achieved by the help of a chip known as the engine control unit (ECU).

3.1.1.     SPFI

a)                design features

It was introduced later in the 1940’s by Ford.  It basically injects fuel at same place where the carburettor introduced its fuel. It introduces the gasoline or diesel at the body of the throttle. When the fuel mixture is formed, it is passed through some of the intake runners just as it is done with the carburettors. This is not the case with the mechanical injectors which uses a fuel distributor as a means of regulating the mass

b)               benefits & problems


It had the advantage of having a relatively low cost. Since most of the carburettor’s components were reusable. These include the air cleaner and the intake manifold.

It does not have issues associated with higher altitudes, or even too much of the lean angle.

3.1.5.     Injection systems: MPFI

a)                design features

This is where a fuel injector is placed or mounted at the plenum intake which is pointed at each intake valves which are found in the cylinders. There are 6 cylinders which also have six injectors. There also exist two circuits for firing in the ECM.  One of the circuits is for the front bank which comprises of three cylinders and the other one which is found at the rear bank also comprising of the other three cylinders (Husain, 2003).

b)               benefits & problems

It offers an additional injector which helps in increasing fuel during a cold start. This has the effect of enabling the machine to start up immediately after the choke circuit is turned on.

3.1.6.     Direct injection

a)                design features (e.g. Piezzo)

These injectors are exposed to more heating and more pressure. This in turn has to be handled with material of a higher quality and precision electronic systems. In this system, the whole intake is normally dry. For the case of a common rail, the fuel is supplied from the tank to the common header. It is again sent taken through the tube to the combustion chamber. The header in turn having a valve retains the header pressure and the excess fuel is taken back to the tank. A nozzle does the spraying and is closed or opened using a needle valve which is linked with a solenoid. The spring pushes the needle valve into the nozzle when the solenoid switch is on preventing fuel from jetting to the cylinder. When the solenoid is switched off, the valve allows fuel into the cylinder (Jurgen, 1999)

b)               benefits & problems


They are better than sequential engines


Since it is exposed to high temperatures and high pressure, the materials which must be used are     required to be of high quality and of higher precision-electronic management systems hence costing much.

Due to high amount of pressures and temperatures used, injection fuel systems possess a potential hazard especially during maintenance.

3.1.7.     Possible future trends

The piezzo common rail is the first of its kind which uses the common rail technology in the automotive industry. This boosted much in terms of the efficiency and the advanced the power engine.

This started down from the SPFI (manifold), MPFI (single hole -manifold), MPFI-single and multi-hole (manifold), Direct injection (in cylinder), and now the Piezzo Controlled (digital) injection system

3.1.4.     Mechanical injection system

This type of system uses a high pressure pump known as the roller cell pump which allows the fuel to enter and be compressed by cells that rotate through the pump at such a high pressure. This produces up to 8 bars of pressure.

          Inside the pump we have a valve that reliefs the pressure by lifting its seat when it reaches 8 bars in order to arrest the high forces when the filter and fuel lines causes it to be obstructed. At the other side is a non-return valve which closes down in case the pump is not there.

3.1.5.     common rail

The common rail diesel system require very short i.e. (<1s) or even at best no time at all yet powerful, have lower noise and almost no emissions (Husain, 2003).

They use the principle of a solenoid   or rather a piezoelectric valve which helps in making it possible to have fine electronic control of the injection time of fuel and thus resulting in better atomisation.

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3.1.4.     benefits & problems


It has a better atomisation technique compared to the carburettors.

It uses a technological way in managing the time and hence resulting in much more efficiency.


It requires a complex program to manage the whole activities which control the whole process of delivering this service.

It is quite technical compared to using a simple carburettor.

3.1.5.     possible future trends

At the rate where technology is moving, the future of this industry especially with respect to the common rail is at the moment still not defined. At japan, there is a project going on which is aimed at incorporating the common rail, the ECU controlling these individual components, and the sensors in order to come up with a better device. 

  1. The pros and cons of fuel droplet size distributions and the factors that effect on combustion –petrol only.

The effect of droplet size distribution when performing spray combustion has been weighed many times in the laboratories for quite some time.  In looking at this one we will consider an experiment performed to analyse the effect of the droplet size during combustion. We will consider three droplets of which they have different diameters. D1, D2 and D3. D1 is the smallest and D3 being the largest.  These droplets after being passed through the combustion tubes were observed to have distinct characteristics.  DSDs 1, 2, and 3 were compared by measuring droplet size, there velocity distribution, and there radial locations in the flame (Jurgen, 1999).

It was observed that the overall flame dimensions were apparently affected by the nearing of the incoming DSD hence D1 being the smallest had the largest followed by D2 then D3 which had the smallest. Also, given a certain mixture of fuel, there is the presence of a certain DSD that produces the maximum flame propagation rate.  Next observation was the reduction of the combustion rate as the DSD got bigger.

The SMD was also seen as a spray progression which grew larger as the droplets which are small progressed. Lastly, DSD1 which was the smallest produced the most combustion temperatures and consequently DSD 3 which was the biggest produced the lowest temperatures.

In the natural sense, to have a maximum combustion with petrol, then every droplet of the water and the fuel has to have at least a water droplet of about 5microns to 20 microns of droplet diameter.  Within the oil. A proper mixing of the water and the petrol has the best outcome in combustion.

In a typical burner, the droplets produced range from 100 microns to 200microns of diameter but it also depends on the designer of the atomiser. Large fuel droplets will always not burn completely. They burn leaving some remains of the carbon while they act as point of collection of heat and as they escape, they escape with a certain percentage of the heat through the exhaust gasses. This has the effect of reducing the overall thermal efficiency.

The size of the droplets also affects the production of the energy in the combustion in the sense that when we consider secondary atomisation, this process uses water in the mixture to effectively generate the power needed hence for it to be effective; there must be very small droplets with a well-controlled distribution. When the number of the droplets happens to be too small (approximately of the size less than a micron of the droplet diameter) then it will produce energy which is insufficient even to cause the secondary atomisation.

In every combustion involving the burning of fuels in a closed chamber, there are one or two things or factors which are to be considered because they directly affect the productivity of the combustion exercise. These factors have to be taken to account especially when we want to have a higher performance of our engines when we are using petrol as the fuel. Here are some of the factors that have a direct influence the amount of the energy produced during the combustion process (Heinz, 1995).

An engine is a combination of different devices linked together to form a complexity. Its structure gets more complex especially when one gets to see the inner chambers of the engine where the combustion takes place. Further, the kind of the connecting rod length has an effect on the output of the combustion process. Analysis has it that when the rod is left to be long i.e. when the lengths appears to move to the peak power moves to the peak torque of the rpm. In such a way that when this happens then it is not desirable. To get a really good range then we need to have the rod length shortened, but since the piston residence time also goes hand in hand with the longer rods, this causes it to increase hence allowing enough heat to escape into the heads of the cylinders and the rest of the cooling mechanical systems. This additional heat in turn can be a disadvantage to the power as the extra heat “soaks” (Husain, 2003).

The average speed of the flames  tend to increase with the  increasing speed of the engines,  and for this, the average pressure measurements due to the high amount of turbulence which occur at the inlet tracks and the combustion space normally shows that a large part of the  whole combustion process happens at almost  the crank angles. This point is to point out or clarifies that this is happening to the benefit of making some pre-combustion mixtures quality to be optimised and to be up to standard.

Again we cannot finish this without making mention the issue of the combustion being affected by the surface area to volume ratio. Just ass when o bore size is increased and the size of the stroke kept constant, then some extra area will be    exposed to a combustion flame and the piston speed let to remain the same. If no compensation on these systems were made, then the pressure in the cylinders will be lost to the cooling system of the engine. This will have the result of the power engine to reduce its power.

Also something to note, when one is doing the selection then it should be considered that the path to a particular constellation, then should link the valve timing and motion together with the speed as desired (but should be of the desired range in rpm). In this the speed of the piston is going to reduce i.e.  This happens at the inlet cycle and the pressure rate of the induction system will then decrease. By this it indicates that the events on the valve (which for this one should be a particular one on the intake side) that it helps in showing and to recover for the reduction rate of flow and the efficiency which require some proper attention. For this, when the pumping losses and removing of the combustion influence is absent, and then the torque curves and the v.e curves take the same shape meaning they are similar (Bossard, 1996). 

The cross sectional shape of the equilibrium and the stability in a liquid which is not in a stationary place in its gaseous form  appears to  be the final end   product in a number of the industries dealing with the atomisation of fuels. As analysed, the equilibrium is normally formed by the distribution of the dynamic pressure in the medium which splits the liquid drop into a deformed shape and normally restored to its shape by surface area, and the second one being the stability of the deformed drops normally we get it from the power series in the weber number. By this, calculation shows that the liquid drop is stable in the range region of lower weber numbers and having a reduced oscillatory proportional frequency coinciding with the size of the weber number.

Petrol consists mostly of its components as atomic carbon(C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), mineral (ash), and water (H2O). In combusting the fuel, it means that one is letting the oxygen molecule (02) which is present in the air to react with the components of the fuel that are combustible. These include such components as the carbon which react with oxygen in air to form carbon dioxide (CO2) if the combustion was complete but if it was not complete then it we get Carbon monoxide (CO), which is a deadly gas if inhaled (Bossard, 1996). The fuel requires a specific amount of ambient air that will be able to combust it fully. This amount of air is air is known as the “stoichiometric air” or in other words referred to as the “the theoretical air” to combust the fuel. Therefore, if the supply of air is enough in the combustion chamber then the fuel will burn completely but if the stoichiometric air is not reached then no full combustion will take place instead there will be partial combustion of the fuel which will result in the formation of carbon monoxide. One can get the value of the minimum amount of air needed to combust the fuel fully by using the equation below.                                          

Where,   AF= a property of fuel which one is able to get after calculating from the chemical composition of the fuel (petrol in our case).

 According to Denton (2005), “Higher temperatures of the chamber walls often have a significant effect on the average combustion process since they tend to raise the temperature hence resulting in increased average temperature of the combustion chamber” (pg 190).

The place in which the spark is positioned is significantly important as it determines the length a droplet is going to travel before it reaches the detonator. This is explored in a better way by making sure the spark is centrally placed and normally placed near the exhaust valve.

The combustion chambers are also promoted by the increased ratio of compression. Highest useful compression ratio is the compression ration that determines if a combustion will take place. If the ratio happens to be higher, then the higher the chances of combustion and if the ratio turn out to be small, then the lesser the chances of combustion to occur.

  1. Potential alternative fuels in passenger vehicles and their impact.

3.1.   Ethanol (alcohol  CH3OH)

                 Ethanol is a colourless liquid which is best known as alcohol. It can be chemically produced from ethylene or the biological fermentation of different sugars which are found from agricultural crops and cellulosic residues which are found in crops or wood. Sugar is fermented into ethanol in one of the earliest organic reactions which are undertaken by humanity. The complete combustion of ethanol forms water and carbon dioxide (Caye, Nhuan. and Terry, 2008).

C2H5OH (l) + 3 O2 (g) → 2 CO2 (g) + 3 H2O (g); (ΔHc = −1371 kJ/mol) specific heat = 2.44 kJ/ (kg·K)

Ethanol can be used as a fuel which helps in the reduction of harmful emissions of carbon monoxides and other ozone forming pollutants. Brazil is the world’s best known country for its national fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol in this country is used as fuel in more than 90% of the new cars which are sold in Brazil. The combustion of ethanol in an internal engine produces products of incomplete combustion which are also produced by gasoline.

3.2.   Methanol

Methanol is used as a fuel for the internal combustion in engines either directly or in combination with gasoline. Methanol is less expensive when it comes to its production methanol burns at lower temperatures as compared to gasoline and it is less volatile which makes engine starting in cold weather very difficult. The use of methanol in spark ignition engines brings up increased thermal efficiencies and also an increased power output as compared to gasoline. Methanol like ethanol, it contains insoluble and soluble contaminants like halide ions which have a large corrosivity, which clogs the entire fuel system with time. Methanol tends to absorb water vapour from the atmosphere and this vapour causes the dilution of the methanol and may cause the engine to knock.

3.3.   Bio Petro

Bio-petro is normally made from alcohol which is finely distilled. Bio petrol is relatively cheap as compared to any other bio is easy to make since it only has to be distilled and it produces no waste. It is very easy to carry around. The disadvantages of bio petro are that: its supply is rapidly decreasing and due to high demand, the prices are increasing by each passing day. It causes effects to the environment after combustion.

3.4.   Bio Diesel

Biodiesel is a solvent which is effective and this shows that engine filters have to frequently be replaced since these biofuels dissolve all the old deposits which are found in pipes and fuel tanks. It also cleans carbon deposits from the combustion chamber and in so doing; it helps to maintain the efficiency. Biodiesel is very safe to transport and handle since it is as biodegradable as sugar, it is less toxic and has a very high flash point of 300F as compared to the petroleum diesel fuel which normally has a flash of about 125F (Caye ,Nhuan. and  Terry, 2008).

3.5.   natural gas CH4

In the combustion of methane, it is thought to give formaldehyde which further gives a formyl radical which further forms carbon monoxide in a process called pyrolysis.

Natural gas, in a compressed form is commonly used as fuel in vehicles and it is environmental friendly as compared to all the other fossil fuels like diesel and gasoline.

3.1.   propane C3H8

                 Propane fuel is a fuel that is manufactured from natural gas and it is 20% less effective than gasoline. It is also called the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Propane requires adequate ventilation since it is highly inflammable. LPG has fewer ozone emissions as compared to gasoline. It is not a renewable fuel as it is directly linked to petroleum reserves. Its advantages are that it is less toxic and smog forming air pollutants, it is less expensive as compared to gasoline. There are also disadvantages linked to propane which are that; there are no new passenger cars that are available and it is less readily available than diesel and gasoline.

3.2.   Electrical

Unlike all the fossil fuels which are subjected to extinction, this electric fuel is a readily available source of energy which can be extracted from any source starting from sunlight to bacteria. Electric charge could be used to run vehicles. This is so because it does not require much revolution in the manufacturing of the vehicle as compared to the fuel tanks which can be replaced by batteries which are rechargeable. Electricity is a source of energy which is considered to be used in the future on ages to come and considered to be a big success. With the continued incidences of global warming, electric fuels help in the stopping of dangerous and harmful gases like carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from escaping and getting into the atmosphere.

3.3.   kerosene (diesel type)

                 Kerosene is in most cases used as a thinning agent (viscosity reducing) which helps to prevent diesel and biodiesel fuel gelling in cold weather, and it reduces the lubricity of the fuel. The engine would first be started on gasoline, and then after it would be switched to kerosene after the engine was warmed up. Kerosene is however used in jet engines as of late. Kerosene is harmful and toxic and it can be fatal if its fumes are inhaled.

3.4.   hydrogen H2 ( Fuel cell)

Hydrogen can also be used as a motor fuel directly in the internal combustion engine which is not different with the engines which use gasoline. The main problem is that while hydrogen supplies three times energy per pound of gasoline, it only has a one tenth of the density when it is in a liquid form and much less if it is stored as a gas which is compressed which shows that the storage for hydrogen should be very large. Most of the hydrogen powered vehicles usually use hydrogen gas in its compressed form. Since hydrogen has a low density, the compressed hydrogen gas will deprive the car the useful range of gasoline and may be worse than the use of lead-acid batteries.

  1. Fuel and Fuel system issues related to pollution, environment, economy

4.1.   Global –more than country e.g.: NZ, Australia and Fiji.

Global warming is when we have the earth’s surface heating up which is initiated by the temperature rise ( Schobert, 2002). It happens when gases like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and water vapour trap the light and heat which are from the sun in the atmosphere of the earth which leads to an increase in the temperatures. Global warming is affecting many countries like NZ, Australia, Fiji, etc. fossil fuels are normally burned to create electricity and this electricity causes global warming. Petroleum is most commonly used as a source of energy and it causes a lot of pollution to the world. This burning and combustion of fossil fuels can very much aid in the climate changes since there is the remittance of poisonous and toxic gases which are very much harmful to the environment (McKinney, et. al.2003).

These fossil fuels contain elements like sulphur which when it is emitted into the atmosphere, it reacts with water and oxygen and ends up producing sulphuric acids and other sulphate particles and is normally referred to as acid rain. Some oxides like Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and they may end up in fertilising the land which can further alter and change the species ecosystems.  Carbon dioxide emissions can also cause the acidification of the ocean which is shared by a large number of countries. These countries use the ocean for fishing and other activities. This acidification of the ocean shows that the Plantae and the animals that are found in the ocean will be affected and their lives will be at stake. Smoke and haze which come from the combustion of fossil fuels can reduce the amount of light that is received by plants so that they can be able to carry out processes like photosynthesis which leads to the general production of a tropospheric ozone which causes damages to many plants. Greenhouse gas emissions cause global warming since it directly affects the ecosystems in so many ways.

4.2.   Regional

Environmental pollution can have a direct linkage to poverty. The exposure to toxic gases like carbon monoxide can lead respiratory and heart problems which can trigger death in people. The combustion of engines often emit nitrogen oxides(NOx), unburned hydrocarbons which are in most cases capable of many chemical transformations in the air /atmosphere, and carbon monoxide which is a very toxic gas (Holder,2006). Regions should try as much as possible to encourage the use of Sulphur free gasoline. Pollution can cause the emergence of invasive species in a region. Invasive species can eradicate the native species leading to a reduction in the biodiversity where these plants contribute to biomolecules and debris which end up altering the soil composition and the chemical compositions of the environment which reduces the competitiveness of the native species.

The acidity in the ocean caused by excess affects the marine ecosystem which has a direct effect in a region. Alcohol fuels have been encouraged in many countries due to their less impact on environmental pollution. The main properties of ethanol and methanol usually result in the difference in each vehicle fuel storage consideration. The main advantages of the use of biofuels are the ability that they have in reducing greenhouse gas emission. Biofuel combustion is regarded as co2 neutral. The biofuel life cycle is assessed in order to give statements on the greenhouse gas balance.

4.3.   National – New Zealand.

Environmental pollution of various gases like nitrogen oxides may affect our environment and may also cause harm to people. Some of these gases are highly toxic and can be fatal if exhaled (Miller, 1999) and (Agha, 1978). The acid rains caused by emitted sulphur causes the fresh water and soil PH to fall which further results to the damage of the natural environment and general chemical withering. This soil damage causes agricultural plants to die off or they end up being poisonous for human consumption.

In most countries, agriculture is the main source of the country’s source of revenue so if agriculture activities are stopped in a country, or in other words it is reduced in terms of general output levels, it shows that the country’s’ income will fall or decrease. Soil can become infertile and not suitable for plants or it can stop supporting the growth of plants.

Noise pollution from the combustion of the engines mainly the motor vehicle which produces 90% unwanted noise can cause high blood pressure, stress, sleep disturbance and hearing loss. The elderly people are very much affected by this air pollution. Lead and other very toxic heavy metals are reported to cause neurological problems. Radioactive substances are highly cancerous and can also cause birth defects in children. Oil spills often cause skin rashes and irritations. Some fossil fuels are very toxic like kerosene is fatal if its fumes are inhaled which makes them a health hazard. Hurricanes which involve water contamination and petrochemicals from automobiles can be a national disaster.

4.4.   Industry.

In industries, there will lack of employees from the decrease in the labour turn up since people who are willing to provide labour to these industries will be ailing and suffering from heart and respiratory problems. This shows that the general outputs in the industries will be highly reduced. Most industries are reported to be the biggest air polluters since they mostly use fossil fuels to produce energy and through the combustion of these fossil fuels end up emitting toxic gases into the atmosphere which is very dangerous to humanity.

  1. Conclusions.

In a general note this was basically a tour through the engine and its working conditions. Since every time we talk of the engine we cannot evade the common adaptations and the common orientations of the engine which are the engine’s foundational principles of operation. As it has been illustrated in this brief discussion, the revolution of the engine since the first ever idea to be adapted which was the carburettors in which they were relatively of lower efficiency, then seeing the idea expanded in terms of fuel consumption of the engine and its impact on the environment to the nowadays piezzo engine which have electrical injectors. These marked a very huge development in the engine industry.

The discoveries led to not only the development along the direction of the engine speed but also in the efficiency of the engines in terms of the consumption of fuel which according to Bachalo (1994), ”was affected by the shape of the nozzle. The nozzle design determines how the spray formation process occurs and the distribution of the subsequent droplet sprays which are formed” (pg 336).

Since most vehicles nowadays use fossil fuels, they normally end up emitting dangerous and toxic gases in the atmosphere which consequently affect the environment as the combustion products are released.  This in turn causes a global warming effect and some other environmental hazards.

 As the improvements continues, in order to completely eliminate the effects that come along with the use of the fuels then changes to the injector system and nozzle designs ought to be considered since this will determine the right formation of the spray which will in turn have the fuel in the chambers fully burned up and leaving less carbon emissions. The result of these changes would greatly have a good effect on the environment as it I will reduce the global effect and engines would be favourable to the economy as a small volume of fuel will produce enough energy. An efficiency which tends to 100%. 


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