## Introduction

This study will measure what resistance a thermostat can have at certain temperatures. To accomplish this, an IC sensor that detects temperature has been used to detect the temperatures.  A thermostat is a device that helps to measure the number of volts according to the certain temperatures. The resistors will be different depending on the temperatures that are reached, and that is why they have to be made out of materials that resist several different temperatures and states. Those sensors that are not very expensive can be useful for those systems that are not too regulated as well. This study will try to determine what the voltage of systems is when it is set to a certain amount of degrees.

In this study a system with the Wheatstone as a balanced bridge had been used. Two resistors, a thermostat and other objects were used to complete this system. The thermostat was set inside a bath tub, which was filled with water and had a certain temperature. As the time went on, the temperature of the water was increased gradually every five minutes. According to some of the results the volts that were produced through the study were around from 0 to 1.999 volts.  Some of these measures changed during the study.

## Converters of A/D

Converting Analog to Digital is not a problem these days, because there are many types of converters available in the market.  These converters allow analog signals to be converted to voltage or digital signals. This allows certain information to be seen through a computer and to input other information as well. Today, the use of these converters is very popular and there are many things that they can be used for.  DVDs, recording music, printing, recording video and cell phone conversations, are examples of what these converters can be used for.

## Resolutions

The converter has a resolution setting which shows how many volts this can produce over some time and different set of ranges. This information and data are then saved as binary code and are used to compare the results and to have better resolution. This is also possible to be described as an electric result or in other words in volts.

## Bit of least Importance

The bit of less importance or LSB as some know it is what gives a unit in a binary system its value. The LSB is also known as the right-most bit, as the numbers that matter the most are the ones at the far right, or you start reading the data from right to left. This is an analog system and it does a lot to increase the decimals of each figure.

## Error of Quantization

The resolution of the ADC, which is not very strong, is an error of quantization. This cannot be avoided with all types of ADC. The resolution is equal to the LSB measurement of one.

## Range of Dynamics

The quantity that changes and all of its values from the tiniest to the largest is what this range consists of.

## Approximation of Success

This can be described as the amplified signal from analog system, which is then transferred to a binary type of system, so that it can be quantified and arranged to the range and levels of the conversion system.

## Circuit that holds and Sample

Electronics describes circuits that hold and samples as those that get information from the analog devices, which can lead to the level that will stay in for certain periods of time. The memory devices depend on some of these circuits that hold and samples.  The capacitor is the place where the volts are stored and where the switches are turned off when the voltage of the capacitor is converted as it is supposed to be.

## An A/D Converter that Integrates ICL

The integration of A/D converters can be described as having two similar effects. They are of course the representation of volts and their techniques can be compared to their inputs while not doing anything. This will cause it to have other results and to increase the noise of the frequencies. The other converters have the best injections and these result in not having large linear error or possibility for messing up the codes.  The features that should be included are:

• One voltage reference – It benefits the users.
• Zero automatically – There will be no mistakes with calibrating steps.
• Impedance of High Input – Technology that allows impedances of monolithic signals.

## Thermostat

Semiconductor devices include thermostat, which is meant to measure the temperature in certain things or activities. The sensor allows the temperature to be measured from a semi conductor that has been added and that is made from materials that can resist any type of temperature.  It is common for the thermostat not to be as resistant as the temperatures become hotter. This is caused by the semiconductor that has been used and this is why finding the best is important.

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These types of devices work the best at the moderate range of temperatures. The best material to build thermostats is ceramic, as this material resists very well hot and cold temperatures. Thermostats are also used because they are very affordable and they make economic sense in most systems.

Heat is generated as the current passes through the thermostat. This will cause this device to move from a zero state to another state, depending on the temperature. It is also possible for the temperature to decrease and there are negative numbers for this. The resistance will be lower as the thermostat starts to  show high indicator of temperature and it will dissipate as soon as it gets hotter.

Devices that absorb electricity are known as sources of constant power. These can have several purposes and they generate electric power. These can be of different types as well and they are known as practical or theoretical.  This prevents volts from getting low and cut the power for the device which is trying to get hotter with it.

When temperature reaches the negative numbers the best solution is thermostat linearity. There are two strategies for achieving this and they are known as volt modes and resisting modes. Normal resistors need to be paired up with the NTC thermostats and they need to work together or at the same rate.

When the mode is in volts, the linearity occurs when the resistors are in order of the NTC thermostats. A circuit from the diving volts is formed by this design.  The ICs show the temperatures of certain sensors and what the semiconductors can reach. These indicators are very accurate and they barely make any mistakes. They also provide other important features and functions. The analog and digital systems are the two different types of sensors that detect IC temperature at the moment.

The sensors that record analog systems can produce some volts and are relative to the temperature. The sensors that measure digital systems can monitor the temperatures that are happening at a local stage.  Both of these types of sensors are very similar, but the digital sensors do not convert information to volts, instead they use it as a binary code.  This is why these types of sensors are better for some types of activities and functions, such as a microcontroller.

## Design of the Experiment

This experiment was completed in several stages and the functions and results of each stage were recorded appropriately.

Some of the items included in systems of transducer are:

• The item that will be measured.
• The Transducer.
• The converter of signals.
• The amplifier of signals.
• The form for displaying signals and acts.

The object that will be measured will be the temperature of water that has been heated between 30 and 60 degrees Celsius.  The transducer will be a LM60 Thermostat and will provide enough resistance force, as well as the ranges of temperature that are being analyzed. There is an estimated change of the transducer of 12K.

The conversion of signals will be done through circuits that detect the resistance force of the change in the temperature. The Wheatstone bridge that was built previously will be used to convert the signals in this study. It will also calibrate the temperature and validate it to the degrees that were previously stated.  The amplifier will also be used to determine if there are any differences between the different nodes that the output of the Wheatstone bridge is generating. The amplifier of the signals will also be done within the range of the displays that were digitally taken. There are no more than 1.999 volts displayed by the amplifier at any time. The resistors also have a certain limit that needs to be maintained and the temperature may not go above certain degrees or the system could start to fail in some ways.

The method for displaying the output of the signals will be through the value of the volts and this could reach up to 1.999. Analog volts are taking by the AD converter and they are then used by the clock. This can reach a 120 Hz and it has a wave that is squared. The LED panel also gets the energy to light itself from the transistors and the decoder.

## Process of the Experiment

• Linearity of the thermostat.

The bath and the water must be prepared. The water must reach a temperature between 30 and 60 degrees Celsius. An average temperature of the water will be taken. The linearity will be determined from this average record.

• The conversion of AD and the display of digital information will be implemented at this stage. The circuits need to be connected appropriately and they need to have a method for displaying the information collected.
• The amplifier, conversion of signals and the transducer.

The implementation of the circuits must be completed according to the plan. The Wheatstone bridge must also be built appropriately.

• Testing and Connecting.

Once the circuit has been installed completely, it will need to be tested to see if it is working as planned. The temperatures will be measured several times, to see that they are accurate and that the system is in proper working condition. The Wheatstone bridge must be calibrated in order to provide an accurate answer and values.

• Testing.

The accuracy of the thermostat is tested in this stage and now the information is recorded for real.

The thermostat and the Wheatstone bridge were connected together and they amplified operationally, they displayed the data, they recorded the temperatures, converted signals and A/D power and it was all done accurately. The calculations of the mistakes and errors throughout the process where also taken into account and calculated.

The A/D converter, the Wheatstone bridge, the DMM and the amplifiers that were operating, were all connected together as well. These devices helped to display the information correctly and accurately. The process was done three times in order to ensure that it was done correctly. The standard deviation, the error percentage and the average indicators were all calculated in this study.

Two tests took place in order to determine if the system was operating appropriately or not. The volts of the theoretical reading were determined first. These values were then used to determine the error in the average of the volts. The display of the data was also tested and this used the DMM and the digital display unit. The correlation between this two was determined as higher than normal and it proved that the system was working appropriately.

## Conclusion

The goal of this study was to come up with a system that could measure temperatures through a transducer or thermostat.  The device used in this study was created in several stages and tested to see that it works appropriately. The object that was going to be measured was first established and then the transducer and circuits were determined, planned and built. The system is able to amplify, convert, show and display temperature data of water in a bathtub. This proves that a Wheatstone bridge, an A/D converter, a Volt measurer, an OP Amps and other devices can be used to measure the temperature of water as it increases or decreases without a problem.

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