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It is essential for research to use theory and models in explaining how events and processes in the world occur. This is noteworthy because theories and models form the foundation of research design and a basis for unraveling facts.
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The are different reviews of various conceptual theories and models that are currently in use in nursing research. I have chosen the theory of culture, care, diversity and universality. Dr. Madeleine M. Leininger is the founder of the theory. It states that caring is a universal trend but varies according to culture. Therefore, people in different cultures are capable of leading health professionals in providing efficient healthcare.
Jennifer McBride’s research paper “The cultural diversity of patients and importance of providing culturally competent care” uses this theory. This research is about establishing the challenges of nursing in a multicultural century and providing a leeway for nurses to provide appropriate healthcare regardless of the patients’ culture. The research notes that it is integral to be culture conscious in order to deliver proper healthcare. McBride argues in the research that cultural competence is part and parcel of healthcare. She holds the hypothesis that a culturally competent nurse can competently provide better healthcare than one who is unaware. She recommends nurses to learn about the culture where they work to provide culturally competent healthcare (McBride, 2008).
McBride uses Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality because it contains information on healthcare in the context of culture. I found out that the research revolves on Leininger’s premise that people of different cultures have varied healthcare plans. Guided by Leininger’s theory, McBride explains the meaning of culture in a nursing context. She uses the theory to develop her main argument that there is the need to provide culturally competent healthcare. The theory also helps her to develop a rationale for the need of providing a culturally competent healthcare to patients.
I would find it intriguing to research on establishing the role of impact of culture in maternal healthcare. This is because culture and maternal healthcare have been critical emerging trends in family nursing. There is the need to integrate the role of traditional midwives and family nurses in maternal healthcare.
The value of basing research on an established theory or model is that one can achieve a high level of conceptual integration of issues. I found out that the use of established theory or model ensures consistence of research questions with evidence and offers a basis for stating the hypothesis to be tested. Theories also allow researchers to integrate observation and facts into an orderly scheme. They also provide the researcher with background information to build the research. There are different strategies for locating relevant theory or model for a research study. In-depth qualitative studies and prior literature review are crucial in identifying a relevant theory or model to base one’s research (Polit & Beck, 2012).
In conclusion, theories and models are fundamental in developing research. Having a tenable theory or model provides the basis for establishing the structure of the research. Research demonstrates its conceptual clarity through the delineation of theory, model or framework which forms the basis of the study.
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