Al-Andalus was a Muslim medieval state in Moorish Iberia, what forms part of Portugal, Spain, France and Gibraltar of today. This island was generally governed by Muslims between the years of 711 and 1492 and experienced several wars between them and the Christian Kingdom which caused a frequent change in the Al-Andalus Island. After conquering the state of Hispania by the Muslim state, the island was divided into five states, incorporating the Christians and leading to a rise in the exchange of cultures. It therefore grew to be one of the leading centers for culture and economics (cited in Henry, 1999). This however did not stop the wars and conflicts between the Christians and the Muslims. The Christian Kingdoms to the North being the majority ultimately overpowered the Muslim states causing a gradual decline in the Muslim population in this island, subsequently ending the existence of Al-Andalus as a political giant.
Question 2: the evolution of flamenco in Al-Andalus Island
Before the invasion of the Moorish in I711, the natives of the Al-Andalus Island had adopted their own musical liturgical forms which included the Mozarabic rite. This rite remained strong to at least the end of the 10th or the 11th centuries after surviving the Moorish invasion and the Gregorian reform. The conquest of the island by the Muslim religion greatly influenced the music reforms of the natives of this island while they too experienced some influence on their original music. Andalusian Nuba which is a style of music that is still performed in the North African countries has its origin from the influence of both the Christians and the Muslim worlds by the Emirate. This influence attracted musicians from all the Muslim dominated countries. Various musicians like Zyriab added a fifth string in the Lute therefore revolutionizing its playing techniques and shapes (Harrison-Hansley & Sussman, 2006)