Every officer of the police has the sole duty of protecting the property and lives of the citizens, respecting the laid out law at all times and at all times being ready and alert to experience a range of situations ranging from criminal behavior and accidents. Even when off duty, the officers of the police are usually mandated to use authority where it calls for and also to carry their arms when required.
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When police officers are off-duty, they are regarded as private citizens. However, they are not required to abandon their duty attire or weapon. Similarly, just as stated by the Florida Supreme Court , “When an officer is not performing his official duties, he is no longer protecting the public welfare and, consequently, the statute yields him no greater protection than that accorded to members of the general public.” Law enforcement officers are only those performing official police duties. Just as in the Soverino decision, the Supreme Court decision in McLaughlinmakes clear that officers should only be accorded the statutory status of “law enforcement officer” while performing official police duties. However off duty officers are hired as security panel for establishments around many states (Trojanowicz, 1998).Also, their investigative services are sought, letting them be private detectives.
The Pinkerton Security was established in 1850 in Chicago by Allan Pinkerton. It is a renowned detective agency that gained national popularity when the founder uncovered an assassination plot on the life of Abraham Lincoln (Frank 1982). Currently, it operates as Pinkerton Consulting & Investigations, the firm boasts of professionalism with high degrees of skill and competence, which has placed as a market leader. Pinkerton’s motto is “We Never Sleep”.
FBI is an intelligence-driven and a threat focused national security and law enforcement organization with its headquarters in Washington DC. The mission of FBI is “To protect and defend the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services state agencies and partners”. The FBI motto is “Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity." The organization’s core values include Rigorous obedience to the Constitution of the United States; Respect for the dignity of all those we protect; Compassion; Fairness; Uncompromising personal integrity and institutional integrity; Accountability by accepting responsibility for our actions and decisions and the consequences of our actions and decisions; and Leadership, both personal and professional. As at August 31st, the FBI had a pool of 35,477 employees comprising of scientists, information technology specialists, intelligence analysts and language specialists.
Community policing is a reform in the police force that seeks to change the way think and act. The community policing philosophy is to provide the police with new structures and strategies to motivate the police to solve community problems in new ways. A partnership must be established between the police and the community to allow average citizens to have an opportunity to input to the police process in exchange for their support and participation.
DNA identification is the establishment of an organism through the examination of DNA sequences. The use of DNA technology was authorized by the DNA Identification Act of 1994. To identify persons, forensic scientists scan 13 DNA regions, or loci, that vary from person to person and use the data to create a DNA profile of that individual commonly referred to as a DNA fingerprint. There is an extremely small chance that another person has the same DNA profile for a particular set of 13 regions (Goos, 2002). The identification process could be for the purposes of recognition of suspects, victims of catastrophes, establish paternity and organ matching during transplant programs. The Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis (PCR Analysis) makes exact copies of DNA from a small sample. This in turn provides even vastly tainted samples to be studied. In addition, prevention of contamination is a major precaution taken when collecting, identifying and preserving DNA samples.