According to Douglas (2006) Research conducted in restaurant shows that, the effects of music tempo have great influence on consumer behavior. He explains that, many surveys have been conducted in respect to customers dining at a restaurant to investigate the extent to which high music tempo influences actual perception on time spent during dining and the amount of money spent, he specifically points out that, the results indicate that when slow music is plaid, customers spend a significantly greater amount of time dining than when fast high tempo music is plaid. This gives the evidence that the amount of time spent in restaurant while dining is directly influenced by loudness or the tempo of music plaid, but the extent depends on whether it's a high tempo or slow. In this regard, music tempo loudness has pronounced to have magnitude impact on the on money and time spent on both food and drink in the restaurant during peak hours and days.
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Evert (2001) argues that, the influence of slow tempo and slow music on customer behavior in restaurant has been studied by a variety of scholars. Understanding of the effects of high music tempo is particularly useful to restaurants operators since it helps them to have smooth and easy to control of the restaurant business. Specifically, this understanding is important for controlling customers in restaurant since it determines the actual time spent in a restaurant and the amount of money gained.
In reference to Kotler (1972) the influence of music in restaurants contexts is based on the premise that the design of an environment through a variety of means, including lighting, music speed and sounds volume and temperature among others factor which stimulate perception and emotional responses in consumers and affect their spending behavior as well. According to Stuart (2001) the amount of literature on the effects of music on consumer behavior in restaurants is relatively limited but has steadily grown over the last two decades. According to literature review provided by two main ream studies on restaurants in regard to the effects of high tempo music in England, which explored the area of advertisement and sales growth in relation to high speed music as well as service in restaurant found that high speed music had a soothing, motivational and activated the human mind. It showed that .People everywhere love to listen high tempo music in appreciation they shake, rattle, rock, roll, and even learn to a variety of recorded sounds.
Music tempo influences time and the amount of money spent on drinks in restaurant.
Methodology and findings
Stuart (2001) puts some light to the matter under discussion by arguing that, consumers in restaurant are more likely to admire a restaurant services that are advertised in conjunction with back ground music tempo which they enjoy most than Restaurants that are paired with unappealing music or have no music plaid at all In this regard, Consumers many times are likely to buy food and drinks when the music used to advertise them is aligned with what they want.
Kotler (1972) argues that, the effect of low music tempo is effective to both individual products and entire crowd of customers in restaurant. In tallying to whether or not music is the customers' number one choice, congruity between music and the food and drinks being advertised is also very important. The most effective music used in advertising is that composed specifically to match the food and drinks in the restaurant, although recall of advertising messages can also be enhanced by using popular songs, particularly when the music is played without lyrics. Listeners to background music in restaurant are inclined to mental attraction, supplying the missing lyrics either in their minds or overtly, which increases their involvement with the food or drink they are taking. The pleasure is so appealing to an extent that there is likelihood that they will remember it afterwards.
In reference to Stuart (2001) experiments conducted in the last two decades found that, restaurants with slower music creates slower traffic flow which has an effect of clients taking longer time and spending more time eating and drinking in the restaurant as they listen to music. According to the survey, Restaurants playing slow music had longer waits for tables and much higher customer bar bills. Interestingly, although restaurant patrons did not eat more in the slow music condition, they drank far more.
Stuart (2001) clarifies that, restaurants that play slow bit music clients over 25 percent interviewed believed that they had spent more time in the restaurant, whereas in those who had direct instrumental easy listening music, those under 25 feel that they have been in the restaurants for longer than they have. Thus, unfamiliar or less preferred music slows down perceived time in restaurant
According to (1965) clients in restaurants have been observed to desire drinks and food that has been advertised in conjunction with music they enjoy rather than those paired with unappealing music or no music at all. Clients at the restaurant are also more likely to buy food and drinks when the music used to advertise them is aligned with the type of services offered.
In reference to Chris (2003) the findings on the effect of high tempo music in restaurants is useful to managers. He argues that such knowledge is useful to maximize income in both busy and quiet times of the day and week in restaurants. At quiet times, playing music with a slow tempo, and with other low arousal structural components, can serve to retain people in the restaurant longer, and lead them to spend more money. At peak periods, however, when a faster turnover of tables is preferable, faster music can be played to reduce the average amount of time that customers spend at a table. One issue that is important to restaurant managers, research but that is worthy of investigation before drawing conclusions regarding the best use of music in restaurant settings, is the consequences of musical manipulations on consumer satisfaction, image and ultimately repeat patronage.