1. What is at the heart of the Kosovo situation? Why does such animosity between Serbs and ethnic Albanians exist, and what events have resulted from this animosity? The heart of the Kosovo situation is related to the communistic ideological rule led by Josip Broz Tito. Tito's Yugoslavia was actually a union of various ethnic groups, which were suppressed by Tito's governance for fostering Yugoslav nationalism, buy means of restricting all the other ethnicities from getting into the structure of developing as a strong nationalistic claim. To break this dominant ice, in the year 1996, Kosovo Liberation Army (or the KLA), which is an ethnic Albanian guerrilla group, prevailed upon non-violent resistance movement got into the process of offering armed resistance to Yugoslav and Serbian security forces (Rama, 2001, p. 15). By 1998, the violence worsens and displaced the estimations of Albanians, followed by the increases interest of the western world. As a result Serbian authorities got compelled to sign partial retreat and ceasefire, under the agreement led by Richard Holbrooke. Ceasefire was not followed and fighting resumed by December 1998.
The consequences related to these conflicting wars led t the Ra%u010Dak massacre of 15th of January1999. Millions of ethnic Albanians either decided to flee or were forcefully driven out from Kosovo. In total the war caused 11,000 deaths, followed by 2,500 still missing Albanian, 100 Roma and 400 Serbs (Ponte, 1999). by 2008 there were estimations that came up with at leat 100,000 missing Kosovo Albaniansg. Moreover, instances are such that 9,260 Albanians added by a mass of 2,488 Serbs and a total of 1,254 victims are no more to be identified as per their ethnic origin. The animosity still continues between Serbs and Albanians in the regions of Kosovo. The core cause is religious and nationalist dominance and led by both the sides. Against this dominance Kosovo came up as a disputed territory within the periphery of Balkans and recognised itself as Republic of Kosovo, which is a self-declared independent state. In this context Serbia never recognises the unilateral secession led by Kosovo and considers it as United Nations governed sovereign territory. The dominance however continues over Kosovo and the restlessness in the socio-political and economical conditions persists till date.
2. What attempts have been made by the international community to bring resolution to the conflict? To what extent have they been successful?The current political status of Kisovo is very uncertain and complicated. The attempts led by international community to bring resolution to the conflict seem to fail in the failure. Countries like the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan and many European Union have full-fledged recognized Kosovo's independence, yet majority of UN member states are yet to give an approval. The stand point led by the International Court of Justice on July 22, 2010 about affirmations related to Kosovo's declaration of independence added its place in international law (Surroi, 2010). Supports led by the World Bank and IMF (International Monetary Fund) is kind of assured, though possibilities of restrictions might change with the socio-political improvement of the state. It was declared that negotiations between Serbia and Kosovar Albanians will be finalised by the end of 2010. Initiations led by EU since October 2010, as a mediator added by solid back up offered by UN were supposed to offer some resolution to the status of Kosovo.
The current results as declared by Teokarevi%u0107 (2010) come up with the information that EU is actually handicap in managing with Kosovo conflict. It cannot prove itself as a facilitator t this conflict. 5 out of 27 members were actually differing about the Kosovo's independence and were not sure about its liberalised declarations. Attempts of resolutions led by the General Assembly declare that it is time that EU should have a dialogue with its members for a common opinion. These initiations though seem to fail in the initial approaches, yet it will be wrong to ignore the process of nominalisation of conflict that these meetings can offer to the animosity between Kosovo and Serbia. Further with the support from international law, World Bank and IMF; there is every possibility that Kosovo can attain strategic planning towards an independent state.