Free «Political Science» Essay Sample

When we are examine politics it is very important for us to know basic form of state. Basic form  of state is determined by power structure ,source where is that power coming from and Legislative system. I would like to present my research  about power structure, or even closer, the federation system.

      Etymologically the word federalism has its roots in the Latin word `foedus` which means the state, alliance or treaty. The term is interpreted differently throughout history, but we can look on it as a promise of political power to minority communities to freely express their own individuality and active life in a collective appreciation of the ethnic, religious and cultural diversity. Federalism in context that we will discuss about relates primarily to state and federally regulated functioning in such a political structure. It occurs by decentralization (Internal transformation of the unitary state), or by aggregation (Merger of two or more states in the federal). From an international point of view, federal government is the subject of international law.

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Elements of the concept of federalism are the sovereignty, constitution, participation   and plurality of the federal units.

Some of the federal countries are the Russian Federation, or Russia and United States of Mexico.

Russia's federal structure is complex and involves 83 federal entities with different levels of autonomy. The greatest autonomy has 21 autonomous republics (eg to. Chechnya, Tatarstan and the largest Saha ( Yakutia) ). Besides them, there are four autonomous districts and one autonomous area.  Most of these autonomous units established under communism in accordance with the politics of nationalities that every major nationality given the right to territory.
The rest of the national territory is divided into administrative units that have less formal autonomy. These are the 46 areas, 9 regions and 2 federal cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg).
In 2000th . were established the new levels of administrative divisions - seven federal districts, each of which includes several federal entities. They are lead by delegates appointed by the Federal President. Mexico has thirty-one states and a Federal District that encompasses Mexico City and its environment.

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Each federation has its own constitution, modeled on the national charter, with the right to legislate and levy taxes other than interstate customs duties. Following the federal organization at the national level, state (and local) governments also have executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Despite its federal structure, Mexico's political system is highly centralized. In both federations Each state has its own constitution, modeled on the national charter, with the right to legislate and levy taxes. Following the federal organization at the national level, state (and local) governments also have executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Despite its federal structure, Mexico and Russia political system are highly centralized.  Basic features of federalism are two levels of government: central government that is responsible for the entire state and federal  government  units   in charge of territorial constitution defined regions where each of them has a clear and independent powers. The Federation defined regions where each of them has clear and independent powers. The Federation usually based on a Constitution that formally deploying legislative and fiscal powers of two levels of government in which both levels of government  have  their own legislative and executive. Decentralized state is the one in which power is divided into a number of state authorities. In both of our countries governmental system is based on the Constitution. By that Constitution, in Russia every state has its own legislatures and governments, who act within the competence. The governments of the republics include a president or prime minister. Chief executives of lower jurisdictions are called governors or administrative heads.

In Mexico, each state has its own constitution, modeled on the national charter, with the right to legislate. Following the federal organization at the national level, state governments also have executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

Each state has its own governor, whose term of office is six years after the expiration of the mandate can not be again elected.  State legislatures are unicameral, consisting of a single  Chamber of Deputies that meets in two ordinary sessions per year,  with extended periods  and extraordinary sessions when needed.

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In Russia there are two political parties. Single Russia ( Russian :  Edinaâ Rossii) is a political party centralist orientation. This party support Russian premier Vladimir Putin. Second is National-Bolshevik Party. Political parties in Mexico are Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI), National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional, PAN),

Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD), Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo, PT), Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de México, PVEM),

Convergence Party (Convergencia, CV) and New Alliance (Nueva Alianza ).

The most recent federal presidential elections in  Mexico  were held on July 2, 2006 concurrent with the full renovation of both chambers of the Congress of the Union.

How does the Federal elections work , BBC (4 March 2012) showed us:

``Vladimir Putin has declared victory in Russia's presidential elections, returning for a third term after spending the last four years as the country's Prime Minister. But opposition groups have reported widespread fraud, with many people said to have voted more than once. They have called for mass protests in central Moscow. Meanwhile tens of thousands of supporters of Mr. Putin gathered with Russian flags and banners outside the Kremlin for a concert to celebrate his victory. Making a brief appearance with current President Dmitry Medvedev, Mr. Putin thanked his supporters from "every corner" of the country.``

And in Mexico, as the Mexico Institute Election Guide released a standings in a presidential race we knew that ``New polls released in the past week revealed several changes in the electoral contest. First, the PRI’s Enrique Peña Nieto continues to solidify his lead .The PAN’s Josefina Vázquez  Mota is struggling to maintain her second-place standing. ``

   What changes will this year bring the federal countries and will elections make a difference or not, time will tell.

These two countries are so far apart, but they have a similar structure and a seemingly politics. Both are decentralized states, while the centralization is obvious. Both of them have huge territories, assembly, prime ministers, presidents and governments .And if you observe  them closely you will  ask yourself :are theese countries  managed by the same man?


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