Free «Political Science» Essay Sample

When we are examine politics it is very important for us to know basic form of state. Basic form of state is determined by power structure ,source where is that power coming from and Legislative system. I would like to present my research about power structure, oreven closer,the federationsystem.

Etymologicallythe wordfederalismhas its roots inthe Latin word`foedus`which means the state,allianceor treaty.The term isinterpreteddifferentlythroughout history, but we can look on itas a promiseof politicalpowerto minoritycommunities to freelyexpresstheir ownindividuality andactive lifein acollectiveappreciation oftheethnic,religiousand cultural diversity.Federalismin context thatwe will discuss about relatesprimarily tostate andfederallyregulated functioningin such apolitical structure. It occurs by decentralization (Internal transformation of the unitary state), or by aggregation (Merger of two or more states in the federal).From an international point of view, federal government is the subject of international law.

Elements ofthe conceptof federalism are the sovereignty, constitution, participation and plurality ofthe federal units.

Some of thefederalcountries are the RussianFederation, orRussia and UnitedStates of Mexico.

Russia's federal structure is complex and involves 83 federal entities with different levels of autonomy.The greatest autonomy has 21 autonomous republics (eg to. Chechnya, Tatarstan and the largest Saha ( Yakutia) ).Besides them, there are four autonomous districts and one autonomous area. Most of these autonomous units established under communism in accordance with the politics of nationalities that every major nationality given the right to territory.

The rest of the national territory is divided into administrative units that have less formal autonomy.These are the 46 areas, 9 regions and 2 federal cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg).

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In 2000th .were established the new levels of administrative divisions - seven federal districts, each of which includes several federal entities.They are lead by delegates appointed by the Federal President. Mexico has thirty-one states and a Federal District that encompasses Mexico City and its environment.

Each federation has its own constitution, modeled on the national charter, with the right to legislate and levy taxes other than interstate customs duties. Following the federal organization at the national level, state (and local) governments also have executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Despite its federal structure, Mexico's political system is highly centralized.In both federations Each state has its own constitution, modeled on the national charter, with the right to legislate and levy taxes. Following the federal organization at the national level, state (and local) governments also have executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Despite its federal structure, Mexicoand Russia political system are highly centralized. Basicfeaturesof federalismaretwo levels of government:centralgovernment thatis responsiblefor the entire stateandfederal government units in charge ofterritorialconstitution definedregionswhere eachof themhas aclear andindependent powers.The Federation definedregionswhere eachof themhas clear andindependent powers.The Federation usuallybasedon a Constitutionthat formallydeploying legislativeandfiscal powersoftwo levels of governmentin whichboth levelsof government have their ownlegislative andexecutive. Decentralizedstate is the one in whichpower isdivided intoa number of state authorities. In both of our countries governmental systemis based on theConstitution. By that Constitution, in Russia every state has its own legislatures and governments, who act within the competence.The governments of the republics include a president or prime minister. Chief executives of lower jurisdictions are called governors or administrative heads.

In Mexico, each state has its own constitution, modeled on the national charter, with the right to legislate. Following the federal organization at the national level, state governments also have executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

Each statehas its owngovernor,whoseterm of office issixyearsafter the expiration ofthe mandatecan notbeagainelected. Statelegislaturesareunicameral, consistingofasingle ChamberofDeputiesthatmeetsintwoordinarysessionsper year, withextendedperiods andextraordinarysessionswhen needed.

In Russia there are two political parties. SingleRussia( Russian: Edinaâ Rossii)is a political party centralistorientation. This party support Russian premierVladimirPutin. Second is National-BolshevikParty. Political parties in Mexico are Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI), National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional, PAN),

Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD), Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo, PT), Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de México, PVEM),

Convergence Party (Convergencia, CV) and New Alliance (Nueva Alianza ).

The most recent federal presidential elections in Mexico were held on July 2, 2006 concurrent with the full renovation of both chambers of the Congress of the Union.

How does the Federal elections work , BBC (4 March 2012) showed us:

``Vladimir Putin has declared victory in Russia's presidential elections, returning for a third term after spending the last four years as the country's Prime Minister. But opposition groups have reported widespread fraud, with many people said to have voted more than once. They have called for mass protests in central Moscow. Meanwhile tens of thousands of supporters of Mr. Putin gathered with Russian flags and banners outside the Kremlin for a concert to celebrate his victory. Making a brief appearance with current President Dmitry Medvedev, Mr. Putin thanked his supporters from "every corner" of the country.``

And in Mexico, as the Mexico Institute Election Guide released a standings in a presidential race we knew that ``New polls released in the past week revealed several changes in the electoral contest. First, the PRI’s Enrique Peña Nieto continues tosolidify his lead .The PAN’sJosefina Vázquez Mota is struggling to maintain her second-place standing. ``

What changeswillthis yearbringthefederalcountriesand willelectionsmake a differenceor not,time will tell.

These two countriesare sofar apart,butthey haveasimilar structureand aseeminglypolitics. Both aredecentralized states,while thecentralizationis obvious. Both of them have hugeterritories,assembly, prime ministers,presidents andgovernments .Andif you observe them closely you will ask yourself :are theese countries managed bythe same man?


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