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The article by Brook Manville and Josiah Ober superbly incorporates two worlds that are Athenian Democracy and the current business world. The authors reflect on how ideal the Athenian democratic values and practices are to the current firms that base more on a person’s knowledge. The article asserts the disconnect existing in the American business, which should be the future of the American business that include non-hierarchies and experienced employees that pledge their loyalty to the company’s welfare. However, the disconnect results because of firms that are exclusionary and encourage hierarchies in their operations. The article also outlines a difference between democratic-capitalism and the oligarchic certainty of the system that promotes the gap between the rich and the poor. Democracy is also explicated in the article concerning how its ideals have being changed to benefit a few individuals economically. Notably, the authors blame cynical leaders for making people decipher that firms are more dependent on them just to inculcate a sense of democracy, which truly is not the case. This argument is real as the imperfections of the American democracy were exposed after the 9/11 incidence that exposed their acquiescence to corporate corruption, defensive and unilateralist foreign policy, a beholden media, and cynical leaders that perpetuate democratic blasphemies. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the article’s reference to Athenian democracy does not offer any solutions to current managers, but it is provides an implication for them to borrow what they deem useful for the success of their organization and employees. Thus, it can be concluded that the article’s argument at this current time of hotshot organizations is coherent and their reference to Athenian democracy is interesting and offers a fine distinction.Want an expert to write a paper for you Talk to an operator now
The authors observed the rule of evidence in their report concerning democracy whereby they employed the Athenian Democracy as an example. The author’s relate how people, in Athens, were democratic in terms of airing their views regarding essential matters, and how everyone was willing to work with the resultant decision “prior to the final vote”. Manville & Ober (2003) also provide evidence when they report concerning the Architecture of Citizenship regarding the Athenians. The points argued by the authors also reflect internal validity in terms of their claims. The reference to the war between Athens and the Persian Empire has validity in history as it took place at the exact period indicated by the article. Some sense of generalization has being incorporated in the article. In reference to participatory systems in Athens, the authors generalize the system of governance in Athens by mentioning executive offices, councils, assemblies and courts. The weakness of article emanates from the conclusion whereby the authors indicate that it is just a model, but does not have any concrete solutions for modern managers.
Implications for a Nurse Leader and a Manager
Manville and Ober (2003) imply that a nurse leader and a manager should inculcate participatory structures that will eliminate hierarchies in their organization. These participatory structures will ensure that all the workers under a nurse leader or a manager ensure their development instead of systems that inhibit their success in career. In addition, the authors imply that a nurse leader or a manager should assure the workers of a permanent tenure and encourage an environment of democracy where every worker contributes towards decision-making and that all employees should assent to working with whatever decision that will be agreed upon prior to the voting.
Open discussion Question
A question that I suggest be discussed openly concerns how the Athenian Model can offer solutions to modern managers. A critical opinion is that since the model facilitated the success of the Athenians, it should be able to offer solutions to modern managers.
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